OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 41, Iss. 2 — Jan. 10, 2002
  • pp: 281–289

Fan-out diffractive optical elements designed for increased fabrication tolerances to linear relief depth errors

Jörgen Bengtsson and Mathias Johansson  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 41, Issue 2, pp. 281-289 (2002)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.41.000281


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (574 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The intensity uniformity of the spots generated by fan-out diffractive optical elements (DOEs) (or kinoforms) is often highly sensitive to any fabrication error that leads to a deviation of the surface-relief depth of the DOE from its design value. Many of the fabrication errors, such as those that are due to insufficient control of development or etch rates, increase almost linearly with the desired relief depth in every position of the DOE. We present an algorithm for designing fan-out DOEs with a significantly reduced sensitivity of the intensity uniformity to such errors. The reduced sensitivity can be obtained without reducing the efficiency of the DOE. Experimental results for fabricated DOEs show that reduced sensitivity is also obtained in practice.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication

History
Original Manuscript: May 10, 2001
Revised Manuscript: September 6, 2001
Published: January 10, 2002

Citation
Jörgen Bengtsson and Mathias Johansson, "Fan-out diffractive optical elements designed for increased fabrication tolerances to linear relief depth errors," Appl. Opt. 41, 281-289 (2002)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-41-2-281


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. C.-Y. Han, Y. Ishii, K. Murata, “Reshaping collimated laser beams with Gaussian profile to uniform profiles,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3644–3647 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Duparre, M. A. Golub, B. Ludge, V. S. Pavelyev, V. A. Soifer, G. V. Uspleniev, S. G. Volotovskii, “Investigation of computer-generated diffractive beam shapers for flattening of single-modal CO2-laser beams,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2489–2497 (1995). [CrossRef]
  3. H. Aagedal, M. Schmid, S. Teiwes, F. Wyrowski, “Theory of speckles in diffractive optics and its application to beam shaping,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1409–1421 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Dresel, M. Beyerlein, J. Schwider, “Design of computer-generated beam-shaping holograms by iterative finite-element mesh adaption,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6865–6874 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Johansson, J. Bengtsson, “Robust design method for highly efficient beam-shaping diffractive optical elements using an iterative-Fourier-transform algorithm with soft operations,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1385–1398 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).
  7. F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl, “Iterative Fourier-transform algorithm applied to computer holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1058–1065 (1988). [CrossRef]
  8. M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, H. Schütz, P. Ehbets, H. P. Herzig, D. Prongue, “Continuous-relief diffractive optical elements for two-dimensional array generation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2526–2533 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Z. Yang, B. Z. Dong, B. Y. Gu, J. Y. Zhuang, O. K. Ersoy, “Gerchberg–Saxton and Yang–Gu algorithms for phase retrieval in a nonunitary transform system: a comparison,” Appl. Opt. 33, 209–218 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Bengtsson, “Design of fan-out kinoforms in the entire scalar diffraction regime with an optimal-rotation-angle method,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8435–8444 (1997). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Larsson, M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, S. Hard, “Successive development optimization of resist kinoforms manufactured with direct-writing, electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1176–1179 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. Ehbets, M. Rossi, H.-P. Herzig, “Continuous-relief fan-out elements with optimized fabrication tolerances,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3456–3464 (1995). [CrossRef]
  13. G. Z. Yang, B. Y. Gu, X. Tan, M. P. Chang, B. H. Dong, O. K. Ersoy, “Iterative optimization approach for the design of diffractive phase elements simultaneously implementing several optical functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1632–1640 (1994). [CrossRef]
  14. R. G. Dorsch, A. W. Lohmann, S. Sinzinger, “Fresnel ping-pong algorithm for 2-plane computer-generated hologram display,” Appl. Opt. 33, 869–875 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. A. Cox, B. S. Fritz, T. R. Werner, “Process error limitations on binary optics performance,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics; 4th in a Series, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 80–88 (1991). [CrossRef]
  16. T. H. P. Chang, “Proximity effect in electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1271–1275 (1975). [CrossRef]
  17. F. Nikolajeff, J. Bengtsson, M. Larsson, M. Ekberg, S. Hard, “Measuring and modeling the proximity effect in direct-write electron-beam lithography kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 34, 897–903 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited