OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 41, Iss. 22 — Aug. 1, 2002
  • pp: 4477–4483

Fourier transform interferometer alignment method

Kenneth A. Goldberg, Patrick Naulleau, and Jeffrey Bokor  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 41, Issue 22, pp. 4477-4483 (2002)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (458 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A rapid and convenient method has been developed to facilitate the alignment of the image-plane components of point-diffraction interferometers, including the phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer. In real time, the Fourier transform of the detected image is used to calculate a pseudoimage of the electric field in the image plane of the test optic where the critical alignment of various optical components is performed. Reconstruction of the pseudoimage is similar to off-axis, Fourier transform holography. Intermediate steps in the alignment procedure are described. Fine alignment is aided by the introduction and optimization of a global-contrast parameter that is easily calculated from the Fourier transform. Additional applications include the alignment of image-plane apertures in general optical systems, the rapid identification of patterned image-plane alignment marks, and the probing of important image-plane field properties.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(070.2580) Fourier optics and signal processing : Paraxial wave optics
(090.1760) Holography : Computer holography
(120.2880) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Holographic interferometry
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(220.4840) Optical design and fabrication : Testing

Original Manuscript: October 10, 2001
Revised Manuscript: April 8, 2002
Published: August 1, 2002

Kenneth A. Goldberg, Patrick Naulleau, and Jeffrey Bokor, "Fourier transform interferometer alignment method," Appl. Opt. 41, 4477-4483 (2002)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. W. P. Linnik, “A simple interferometer for the investigation of optical systems,” Comptes Radnus de l’Académie des Sciences d’U.R.SS. 1, 208 (1933).
  2. R. N. Smartt, W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers (telescope testing),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 (Suppl.14-1), 351–356 (1975).
  3. R. J. Speer, M. Chrisp, D. Turner, S. Mrowka, K. Tregidgo, “Grazing incidence interferometry: the use of the Linnik interferometer for testing image-forming reflection systems,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2003–2012 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. E. Sommargren, “Diffraction methods raise interferometer accuracy,” Laser Focus World 32, 61–71 (1996).
  5. H. J. Jeong, D. A. Markle, “Point diffraction interferometer and pin mirror for use therewith,” U.S. patent5,822,066 (13October1998).
  6. O. Y. Kwon, “Multichannel phase-shifted interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 9, 59–61 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. R. Mercer, K. Creath, “Liquid-crystal point-diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 19, 916–918 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Extreme-ultraviolet phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer: a wave-front metrology tool with subangstrom reference-wave accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7252–7263 (1999). [CrossRef]
  10. E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997). [CrossRef]
  11. K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, P. Batson, P. Denham, H. Chapman, J. Bokor, “Extreme ultraviolet alignment and testing of a four mirror aspheric extreme ultraviolet optical system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2911–2915 (2000). [CrossRef]
  12. D. M. Williamson, “The elusive diffraction limit,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series, D. T. Attwood, F. Zernike, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 68–76.
  13. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Characterization of the accuracy of EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 114–123 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, “A dual-domain point diffraction interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3523–3533 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, “In situ alignment system for phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry,” U.S. patent6,118,535 (12September2000).
  16. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988).
  17. E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, “Reconstructed wavefronts and communication theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1123–1130 (1962). [CrossRef]
  18. K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, P. J. Batson, P. Denham, E. H. Anderson, J. Bokor, H. N. Chapman, “EUV interferometry of a four-mirror ring-field EUV optical system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 867–873 (2000).
  19. P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “At-wavelength, system-level flare characterization of EUV optical systems,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2941–2947 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. K. A. Goldberg, “EUV Interferometry,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, 1997).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited