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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 41, Iss. 25 — Sep. 1, 2002
  • pp: 5223–5229

Volume grating couplers: polarization and loss effects

Ricardo A. Villalaz, Elias N. Glytsis, and Thomas K. Gaylord  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 41, Issue 25, pp. 5223-5229 (2002)

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We analyze the polarization-dependent performance and the loss performance of volume grating couplers using a leaky-mode approach in conjunction with rigorous coupled-wave analysis for two configurations: the volume grating in the cover layer and the volume grating in the waveguide. The angular dependence of TE and TM polarization coupling efficiency is studied, and designs for polarization-dependent and polarization-independent couplers are presented for both configurations. Polarization-dependent couplers are obtained with an outcoupling angle close to normal. Polarization-independent couplers are obtained with outcoupling angles away from normal, 46.7 deg in the case of a volume grating in the cover layer and 54.4 deg in the case of a volume grating in the waveguide. The effect of loss on coupler performance is also analyzed. It is found that, for cases of practical importance, the effect of lossy coupler materials is small. The estimated loss for a commercially available material is 5 dB/cm. For TE-polarized light and the volume grating in the waveguide, a loss of this magnitude reduces the coupling efficiency by less than 3%, whereas in the case of the volume grating in the cover layer, it reduces the coupling efficiency by less than 0.3%.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(090.7330) Holography : Volume gratings
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(130.0250) Integrated optics : Optoelectronics
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices

Original Manuscript: February 22, 2002
Revised Manuscript: May 21, 2002
Published: September 1, 2002

Ricardo A. Villalaz, Elias N. Glytsis, and Thomas K. Gaylord, "Volume grating couplers: polarization and loss effects," Appl. Opt. 41, 5223-5229 (2002)

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