OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 41, Iss. 29 — Oct. 10, 2002
  • pp: 6093–6103

ACTIVE-EYES: an adaptive pixel-by-pixel image-segmentation sensor architecture for high-dynamic-range hyperspectral imaging

Marc P. Christensen, Gary W. Euliss, Michael J. McFadden, Kevin M. Coyle, Predrag Milojkovic, Michael W. Haney, Joeseph van der Gracht, and Ravindra A. Athale  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 41, Issue 29, pp. 6093-6103 (2002)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1709 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The ACTIVE-EYES (adaptive control for thermal imagers via electro-optic elements to yield an enhanced sensor) architecture, an adaptive image-segmentation and processing architecture, based on digital micromirror (DMD) array technology, is described. The concept provides efficient front-end processing of multispectral image data by adaptively segmenting and routing portions of the scene data concurrently to an imager and a spectrometer. The goal is to provide a large reduction in the amount of data required to be sensed in a multispectral imager by means of preprocessing the data to extract the most useful spatial and spectral information during detection. The DMD array provides the flexibility to perform a wide range of spatial and spectral analyses on the scene data. The spatial and spectral processing for different portions of the input scene can be tailored in real time to achieve a variety of preprocessing functions. Since the detected intensity of individual pixels may be controlled, the spatial image can be analyzed with gain varied on a pixel-by-pixel basis to enhance dynamic range. Coarse or fine spectral resolution can be achieved in the spectrometer by use of dynamically controllable or addressable dispersion elements. An experimental prototype, which demonstrated the segmentation between an imager and a grating spectrometer, was demonstrated and shown to achieve programmable pixelated intensity control. An information theoretic analysis of the dynamic-range control aspect was conducted to predict the performance enhancements that might be achieved with this architecture. The results indicate that, with a properly configured algorithm, the concept achieves the greatest relative information recovery from a detected image when the scene is made up of a relatively large area of moderate-dynamic-range pixels and a relatively smaller area of strong pixels that would tend to saturate a conventional sensor.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.2970) Imaging systems : Image detection systems
(110.3000) Imaging systems : Image quality assessment
(110.4280) Imaging systems : Noise in imaging systems
(230.3990) Optical devices : Micro-optical devices
(230.4040) Optical devices : Mirrors
(230.4110) Optical devices : Modulators

Original Manuscript: January 31, 2002
Revised Manuscript: June 3, 2002
Published: October 10, 2002

Marc P. Christensen, Gary W. Euliss, Michael J. McFadden, Kevin M. Coyle, Predrag Milojkovic, Michael W. Haney, Joeseph van der Gracht, and Ravindra A. Athale, "ACTIVE-EYES: an adaptive pixel-by-pixel image-segmentation sensor architecture for high-dynamic-range hyperspectral imaging," Appl. Opt. 41, 6093-6103 (2002)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Castracane, M. Gutin, “DMD-based bloom control for intensified imaging systems,” in Diffractive and Holographic Technologies, Systems, and Spatial Light Modulators IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, R. L. Sutherland, eds., Proc. SPIE3633, 234–242 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. K. Kearney, M. Corio, Z. Ninkov, “Imaging spectroscopy with digital micromirrors,” in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications, M. M. Blouke, N. Sampat, G. M. Williams, T. Yeh, eds., Proc. SPIE3965, 11–20 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. K. Kearney, Z. Ninkov, “Characterization of a digital micromirror device for use as an optical mask in imaging and spectroscopy,” in Spatial Light Modulators, R. L. Sutherland, ed., Proc. SPIE3292, 81–92 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. Rochester Microsystems, 400 Air Park Drive, Suite 60, Rochester, New York.
  5. P. B. Fellgett, E. H. Linfoot, “On the assessment of optical images,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 247, 269–407 (1955). [CrossRef]
  6. F. O. Huck, C. L. Fales, Z. Rahman, “An information theory of visual communication,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 354, 2193–2248 (1996). [CrossRef]
  7. V. M. Brajovic, R. Miyagawa, T. Kanade, “Temporal photoreception for adaptive dynamic range image sensing and encoding,” Neural Netw. 11, 1149–1158 (1998). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited