OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 41, Iss. 3 — Jan. 20, 2002
  • pp: 446–452

In situ combustion measurements of CO, H2O, and temperature with a 1.58-µm diode laser and two-tone frequency modulation

Jason J. Nikkari, Joanna M. Di Iorio, and Murray J. Thomson  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 41, Issue 3, pp. 446-452 (2002)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.41.000446


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (297 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

An optical near-infrared process sensor for electric arc furnace pollution control and energy efficiency is proposed. A near-IR tunable diode laser has performed simultaneous in situ measurements of CO (1577.96 nm), H2O (1577.8 and 1578.1 nm), and temperature in the exhaust gas region above a laboratory burner fueled with methane and propane. The applicable range of conditions tested is representative of those found in a commercial electric arc furnace and includes temperatures from 1250 to 1750 K, CO concentrations from 0 to 10%, and H2O concentrations from 3 to 27%. Two-tone frequency modulation was used to increase the detection sensitivity. An analysis of the method’s accuracy has been conducted with 209 calibration and 105 unique test burner setpoints. Based on the standard deviation of differences between optical predictions and independently measured values, the minimum accuracy of the technique has been estimated as 36 K for temperature, 0.5% for CO, and 3% for H2O for all 105 test data points. This accuracy is sufficient for electric arc furnace control. The sensor’s ability to nonintrusively measure CO and temperature in real time will allow for improved process control in this application.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.2020) Lasers and laser optics : Diode lasers
(140.3600) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, tunable
(280.1120) Remote sensing and sensors : Air pollution monitoring
(280.1740) Remote sensing and sensors : Combustion diagnostics
(300.1030) Spectroscopy : Absorption
(300.6340) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, infrared

History
Original Manuscript: November 13, 2000
Revised Manuscript: July 18, 2001
Published: January 20, 2002

Citation
Jason J. Nikkari, Joanna M. Di Iorio, and Murray J. Thomson, "In situ combustion measurements of CO, H2O, and temperature with a 1.58-µm diode laser and two-tone frequency modulation," Appl. Opt. 41, 446-452 (2002)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-41-3-446


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. M. P. Arroyo, R. K. Hanson, “Absorption measurements of water-vapor concentration, temperature, and line-shape parameters using a tunable InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6104–6116 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Tunable diode-laser absorption measurements of NO2 near 670 and 395 nm,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4059–4064 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. Nagali, S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, J. Segall, “Tunable diode-laser absorption measurements of methane at elevated temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4026–4032 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser absorption measurements of CO2 near 2.0 µm at elevated temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8341–8347 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. M. E. Webber, J. Wang, S. T. Sanders, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “In-situ combustion measurements of CO, CO2, H2O and temperature using diode-laser absorption sensors,” in Twenty-Eighth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), pp. 407–413.
  6. B. L. Upschulte, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, “Measurements of CO, CO2, OH, and H2O in room-temperature and combustion gases by use of a broadly current-tuned multisection InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1506–1512 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. L. C. Philippe, R. K. Hanson, “Laser diode wavelength modulation spectroscopy for simultaneous measurement of temperature, pressure, and velocity in shock-heated oxygen flows,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6090–6103 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. J. Evenson, H. D. Goodfellow, J. Guerard, “Energy optimization and continuous fume analysis at CO-STEEL LASCO: the expert furnace system optimization process,” Electr. Furn. Conf. Proc. 55, 435–453 (1997).
  9. N. Perrin, C. Dworatzek, J. C. Vuillermoz, B. Daudin, S. D. Anderson, “Continuous fume analysis at Vallourec Saint-Saulve,” Electr. Furn. Conf. Proc. 49, 233–241 (1991).
  10. M. J. Thomson, E. J. Evenson, M. J. Kempe, H. D. Goodfellow, “Control of greenhouse gas emissions from EAF steelmaking: evaluation from electric arc furnace steelmaking,” Ironmaking Steelmaking 27, 273–279 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. S. W. Allendorf, D. K. Ottesen, D. R. Hardesty, D. Goldstein, C. W. Smith, A. P. Malcomson, “Laser-based sensor for real-time measurement of offgas composition and temperature in BOF steelmaking,” Iron Steel Eng. 74, 31–35 (1998).
  12. M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998). [CrossRef]
  13. H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements”, in: Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 239–333.
  14. J. A. Silver, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy for trace species detection: theory and comparison among experimental methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 707–712 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998). [CrossRef]
  16. W. J. Kessler, M. G. Allen, S. J. Davis, “Rotational level-dependent collisional broadening and line shift of the A2Σ+–X2II (1,0) band of OH in hydrogen-air combustion gases,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49(2), 107–117 (1993). [CrossRef]
  17. T. K. Aizawa, T. Tamaru, “Measurements of OH radical concentration in combustion environments by wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with a 1.55-µm distributed-feedback diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1733–1741 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “A diode-laser absorption sensor for combustion emission measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 327–338 (1998). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited