The bidirectionality of the upward radiance field in oceanic case 1 waters has been reinvestigated by incorporation of revised parameterizations of inherent optical properties as a function of the chlorophyll concentration (Chl), considering Raman scattering and making the particle phase function shape (β˜<sub><i>p</i></sub>) continuously varying along with the Chl. Internal consistency is thus reached, as the decrease in backscattering probability (for increasing Chl) translates into a correlative change in β˜<sub><i>p</i></sub>. The single particle phase function (previously used) precluded a realistic assessment of bidirectionality for waters with Chl > 1 mg m<sup>−3</sup>. This limitation is now removed. For low Chl, Raman emissions significantly affect the radiance field. For moderate Chl (0.1–1 mg m<sup>−3</sup>), new and previous bidirectional parameters remain close. The ocean reflectance anisotropy has implications in ocean color remote-sensing problems, in derivation of coherent water-leaving radiances, in associated calibration-validation activities, and in the merging of data obtained under various geometrical configurations.
© 2002 Optical Society of America
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering
(290.5840) Scattering : Scattering, molecules
(290.5850) Scattering : Scattering, particles
(290.5860) Scattering : Scattering, Raman
André Morel, David Antoine, and Bernard Gentili, "Bidirectional Reflectance of Oceanic Waters: Accounting for Raman Emission and Varying Particle Scattering Phase Function," Appl. Opt. 41, 6289-6306 (2002)