OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 41, Iss. 33 — Nov. 20, 2002
  • pp: 6941–6949

Airborne Doppler lidar investigation of the wind-modulated sea-surface angular retroreflectance signature

David M. Tratt, Robert T. Menzies, Meng P. Chiao, Dean R. Cutten, Jeffry Rothermel, R. Michael Hardesty, James N. Howell, and Stephen L. Durden  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 41, Issue 33, pp. 6941-6949 (2002)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (207 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Concurrent measurements of sea-surface retroreflectance and associated wind velocity acquired with an airborne CO2 Doppler lidar are described. These observations provide further insight into thermal infrared optical phenomenology of air-sea interface processes, contribute to a greater understanding of radiation transfer between the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and enable improved models of wind-driven ocean-surface stress applicable to other remote sensing applications. In particular, we present lidar measurements of azimuthally anisotropic reflectance behavior and discuss the implications to current understanding of sea-surface optical properties.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.0010) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric and oceanic optics
(010.3640) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Lidar
(280.3640) Remote sensing and sensors : Lidar

Original Manuscript: March 20, 2002
Revised Manuscript: July 11, 2002
Published: November 20, 2002

David M. Tratt, Robert T. Menzies, Meng P. Chiao, Dean R. Cutten, Jeffry Rothermel, R. Michael Hardesty, James N. Howell, and Stephen L. Durden, "Airborne Doppler lidar investigation of the wind-modulated sea-surface angular retroreflectance signature," Appl. Opt. 41, 6941-6949 (2002)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, J. A. Guinn, “Radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere and ocean: influence of ocean waves,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1924–1936 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. I. L. Thomas, P. J. Minnett, “An introductory review of the measurement of ocean surface wind vectors with a satellite radar scatterometer,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 7, 309–323 (1986). [CrossRef]
  4. J. R. Carswell, S. C. Carson, R. E. McIntosh, F. K. Li, G. Neumann, D. J. McLaughlin, J. C. Wilkerson, P. G. Black, S. V. Nghiem, “Airborne scatterometers: investigating ocean backscatter under low- and high-winds conditions,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1835–1860 (1994). [CrossRef]
  5. S. H. Yueh, R. West, F. K. Li, W.-Y. Tsai, R. Lay, “Dual-polarized Ku-band backscatter signatures of hurricane ocean winds,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 73–88 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. F. J. Wentz, “Measurement of oceanic wind vector using satellite microwave radiometers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 960–972 (1992). [CrossRef]
  7. S. H. Yueh, R. Kwok, F. K. Li, S. V. Nghiem, W. J. Wilson, J. A. Kong, “Polarimetric passive remote-sensing of ocean wind vectors,” Radio Sci. 29, 799–814 (1994). [CrossRef]
  8. D. B. Kunkee, A. J. Gasiewski, “Simulation of passive microwave wind direction signatures over the ocean using an asymmetric-wave geometrical optics model,” Radio Sci. 32, 59–78 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the Sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954). [CrossRef]
  10. K. J. Petri, “Laser radar reflectance of Chesapeake Bay waters as a function of wind speed,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-15, 87–96 (1977). [CrossRef]
  11. S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Field trials of an optical scanner for studying sea-surface fine structures,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng. OE-10, 451–453 (1985). [CrossRef]
  12. S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Directional slope distributions of wind-disturbed water surface,” Radio Sci. 21, 73–79 (1986). [CrossRef]
  13. J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, “Scanning-laser glint measurements of sea-surface slope statistics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4202–4213 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. L. Bufton, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne measurements of laser backscatter from the ocean surface,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2603–2618 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, “The reflection of airborne UV laser pulses from the ocean,” Mar. Geod. 8, 313–344 (1984). [CrossRef]
  16. C. Flamant, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, J. Pelon, “Wind speed dependence of atmospheric boundary layer optical properties and ocean surface reflectance as observed by airborne backscatter lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25137–25158 (1998). [CrossRef]
  17. R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, W. H. Hunt, “Lidar In-space Technology Experiment measurements of sea surface directional reflectance and the link to surface wind speed,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5550–5559 (1998). [CrossRef]
  18. J. Rothermel, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. R. Cutten, S. C. Johnson, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Remote sensing of multi-level wind fields with high-energy airborne scanning coherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Exp. 2, 40–50 (1998); http://www.opticsexpress.org .
  19. J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998). [CrossRef]
  20. C. T. Amirault, C. A. DiMarzio, “Precision pointing using a dual-wedge scanner,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1302–1308 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. R. Cutten, J. Rothermel, M. A. Jarzembski, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. M. Tratt, V. Srivastava, “Radiometric calibration of an airborne CO2 pulsed Doppler lidar with a natural Earth surface,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3530–3537 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. R. T. Menzies, R. M. Hardesty, “Coherent Doppler lidar for measurements of wind fields,” Proc. IEEE 77, 449–462 (1989). [CrossRef]
  23. J. R. V. Zaneveld, E. Boss, P. A. Hwang, “The influence of coherent waves on the remotely sensed reflectance,” Opt. Exp. 9, 260–266 (2001); http://www.opticsexpress.org .
  24. D. E. Barrick, “Rough surface scattering based on the specular point theory,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 449–454 (1968). [CrossRef]
  25. S. L. Durden, J. F. Vesecky, “A physical radar cross-section model for a wind-driven sea with swell,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng. OE-10, 445–451 (1985). [CrossRef]
  26. K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998). [CrossRef]
  27. M. R. Querry, W. E. Holland, R. C. Waring, L. M. Earls, M. D. Querry, “Relative reflectance and complex refractive index in the infrared for saline environmental waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 1425–1433 (1977). [CrossRef]
  28. S. Q. Duntley, “Measurements of the distribution of water wave slopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 574–575 (1954). [CrossRef]
  29. J. Wu, “Sea-surface slope and equilibrium wind-wave spectra,” Phys. Fluids 13, 741–747 (1972). [CrossRef]
  30. A. C. Newell, V. E. Zakharov, “Rough sea foam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1149–1151 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. P. Koepke, “Effective reflectance of oceanic whitecaps,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1816–1824 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996). [CrossRef]
  33. J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Spectral reflectance of oceanic whitecaps in the visible and near infrared: aircraft measurements over open ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4445–4448 (2001). [CrossRef]
  34. J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, F. F. Sabins, “Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks,” Remote Sens. Environ. 45, 225–231 (1993). [CrossRef]
  35. R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, J. D. Spinhirne, D. L. Hlavka, “Aerosol layers over the Pacific Ocean: vertical distributions and optical properties as observed by multi-wavelength airborne lidars,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.129/2001JD001196 (2002).
  36. M. J. Post, R. E. Cupp, “Optimizing a pulsed Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4145–4158 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. S. H. Yueh, “Modeling of wind direction signals in polarimetric sea surface brightness temperatures,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1400–1418 (1997). [CrossRef]
  38. R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited