OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 41, Iss. 35 — Dec. 10, 2002
  • pp: 7369–7383

Observations of reflectance distribution around sunglint from a coastal ocean platform

Wenying Su, Thomas P. Charlock, and Ken Rutledge  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 41, Issue 35, pp. 7369-7383 (2002)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1840 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A scanning spectral photometer is deployed on a rigid coastal ocean platform to measure upwelling solar radiances from the sea surface at nine elevation angles spanning 150° of azimuth. Measured radiance distributions at 500 nm wavelength have been compared with traditional model simulations employing the Cox and Munk distribution of wave slopes. The model captures the general features of the observed angular reflectance distributions, but: (a) the observed peak value of sunglint near the specular direction is larger than simulated, except for a very calm sea; the model-measurement differences increase with wind speed and are largest for low solar elevation; (b) the observed sunglint is wider than simulated. In contrast to some previous studies, our results do not show a clear dependence of the mean square sea-surface slope on stability (air-sea temperature difference).

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(030.5620) Coherence and statistical optics : Radiative transfer
(120.6200) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Spectrometers and spectroscopic instrumentation

Original Manuscript: May 31, 2002
Revised Manuscript: September 9, 2002
Published: December 10, 2002

Wenying Su, Thomas P. Charlock, and Ken Rutledge, "Observations of reflectance distribution around sunglint from a coastal ocean platform," Appl. Opt. 41, 7369-7383 (2002)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Spooner, “Sur la lumiere des ondes de la mer,” Corresp. Astronomique du Baron de Zach 6, 331 (1822).
  2. E. O. Hulburt, “The polarization of light at sea,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 35–42 (1934). [CrossRef]
  3. V. V. Shuleikin, Fizika Moria (Physics of the Sea), (Izv. Akad. Nauk., Moscow, USSR, 1941) p. 833.
  4. C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).
  6. B. A. Hughes, H. L. Grant, R. W. Chappell, “A fast response surface-wave slope meter and measured wind-wave moments,” Deep-Sea Res. 24, 1211–1223 (1977). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Tang, O. H. Shemdin, “Measurement of high frequency waves using a wave follower,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, C14, 9832–9840 (1983).
  8. S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Field trials of an optical scanner for studying sea-surface fine structures,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. OE-10, 451–453 (1985). [CrossRef]
  9. P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, C11, 13,903–13,912 (1988).
  10. J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, “Scanning-laser glint measurements of sea-surface slope statistics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4202–4213 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Liu, W. J. Pierson, “Comparisons of scatterometer models for the AMI on ERS-1: The possibility of systematic azimuth angel biases of wind speed and direction,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 626–635 (1994). [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Liu, X.-H. Yan, “The wind-induced wave growth rate and the spectrum of the gravity-capillary waves,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 25, 3196–3218 (1995). [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Liu, X.-H. Yan, W. T. Liu, P. A. Hwang, “The probability density function of the ocean surface slopes and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 27, 782–797 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Liu, M.-Y. Su, X.-H. Yan, W. T. Liu, “The mean-square slope of ocean surfacewaves and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 17, 1092–1105 (2000). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. G. Trokhimovski, “Gravity-capillary wave curvature spectrum and mean-square slope retrieved from microwave radiometric measurements (Coastal Ocean Probing Experiment),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 17, 1259–1270 (2000). [CrossRef]
  16. M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using measurements of reflected sunlight: effect of instrumental errors and aerosol absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 13,543–13,553 (1997). [CrossRef]
  17. M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, A. A. Lacis, “Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data: sensitivity analysis and preliminary results,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7325–7341 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. P. Goloub, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F. M. Breon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ASEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, P. Goloub, D. Tanre, A. Marchand, “Characterization of aerosols over ocean from POLDER/ADEOS-1,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1421–1424 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001). [CrossRef]
  21. J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383–397 (2002). [CrossRef]
  22. M. I. Sancer, “Shadow-corrected electromagnetic scattering from a randomly-rough ocean surface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 17, 557–585 (1969). [CrossRef]
  23. A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, C7, 13,143–13,150 (1995).
  24. R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, “Correction of the sunglint contamination on the SeaWiFS aerosol optical thickness retrieval,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part I (SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), Chap. 9, pp. 65–69.
  26. R. G. Kleidman, Y. J. Kaufman, B-C Gao, L. A. Remer, V. G. Brackett, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Remote sensing of total precipitable water vapor in the near-IR over ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2657–2660 (2000). [CrossRef]
  27. Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, M. R. Schoeberl, M. A. Yamasoe, “Retrieval of black carbon absorption from proposed satellite measurements over the ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 34-1–34-4, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015403 (2002).
  28. J. Wu, “Sea-surface slope and equilibrium wind-wave spectra,” Phys. Fluids 13, 741–747 (1972). [CrossRef]
  29. E. F. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J.-J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997). [CrossRef]
  30. R. B. Stull, An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 377–380.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited