OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 41, Iss. 4 — Feb. 1, 2002
  • pp: 644–647

Seventeenth-century telescope optics of Torricelli, Divini, and Campani

Mara Miniati, Albert Van Helden, Vincenzo Greco, and Giuseppe Molesini  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 41, Issue 4, pp. 644-647 (2002)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1160 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Optics of telescope makers Torricelli, Divini, and Campani dating back to the 17th century have been tested interferometrically. It was found that the optical polishing technology had progressed to thorough control over the surface figure and finish, while the nearly paraxial conditions of the aperture remained constant. The instruments that were examined exemplify the knowledge of optics of that time, particularly with respect to the early use of erector units in terrestrial telescopes.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.2850) General : History and philosophy
(110.6770) Imaging systems : Telescopes
(120.4800) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical standards and testing
(220.2740) Optical design and fabrication : Geometric optical design
(350.1260) Other areas of optics : Astronomical optics

Original Manuscript: July 10, 2001
Revised Manuscript: August 23, 2001
Published: February 1, 2002

Mara Miniati, Albert Van Helden, Vincenzo Greco, and Giuseppe Molesini, "Seventeenth-century telescope optics of Torricelli, Divini, and Campani," Appl. Opt. 41, 644-647 (2002)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. A. Bedini, “Lens making for scientific instrumentation in the seventeenth century,” Appl. Opt. 5, 687–694 (1966). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. O. Pedersen, “Sagredo’s optical researches,” Centaurus 13, 139–150 (1968). [CrossRef]
  3. S. A. Bedini, “The makers of Galileo’s scientific instruments,” in Proceedings of the 1964 Symposium on Galileo (Bemporad Marzocco, Florence, Italy, 1967), pp. 89–115.
  4. F. Bonaventura Caualerio, Exercitationes Geometricae Sex (Monti, Bologna, Italy, 1647).
  5. Letter from Evangelista Torricelli to Bonaventura Cavalieri, 25October1642 (Italian National Library, Florence).
  6. A. Van Helden, “The astronomical telescope,” Ann. Ist. Museo Storia Sci. Firenze I(2), 13–36 (1976).
  7. G. Campani, Ragguaglio di Due Nuove Osservazioni Una Celeste in Ordine Alla Stella di Saturno: E Terrestre l’Altra in Ordine agli Strumenti Medesimi, Co’Quali si e Fatta l’Una e l’Altra Osservazione, Dato al Serennissimo Principe Mattia di Toscana (De Falco, Rome, 1664), p. 23.
  8. M. L. Righini Bonelli, A. Van Helden, “Divini and Campani: a forgotten chapter in the history of the Accademia del Cimento,” monograph 5 (Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza di Firenze, Florence, 1981).
  9. S. A. Bedini, “The optical shop equipment of Giuseppe Campani,” J. Hist. Med. Allied Sci. 16, 18–38 (1961). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Tappi, “Ricerca storica sulle realizzazioni ottiche di Giuseppe Campani,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, 1977–1978).
  11. V. Greco, G. Molesini, F. Quercioli, “Telescopes of Galileo,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6219–6226 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Van Helden, Catalogue of Early Telescopes (Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza di Firenze, Florence, 1999).
  13. P. Galluzzi, “Evangelista Torricelli: concezione matematica e segreto degli occhiali,” Ann. Ist. Museo Storia Sci. Firenze I(1), 71–95 (1976).
  14. V. Ronchi, “Sopra una lente di Evangelista Torricelli,” Universo 5(2), 1–3 (1924).
  15. R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), p. 60.
  16. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), pp. 47 and 211.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited