OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 41, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 2002
  • pp: 1308–1314

Transmission laser microscope using the phase-shifting technique and its application to measurement of optical waveguides

Junji Endo, Jun Chen, Dai Kobayashi, Yasuo Wada, and Hiroyuki Fujita  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 41, Issue 7, pp. 1308-1314 (2002)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (930 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A type of a transmission phase-shifting laser microscope, believed to be new, has been developed. In this microscope a biprism located between a magnifying lens and an observation plane was used as a beam splitter. The biprism is laterally translated to introduce phase shifts required for quantitative phase measurement with a phase-shifting technique. The disturbance caused by a Fresnel-diffracted wave from the splitting edge of the biprism is reduced by placement of a linear beam stopper at the center of an intermediate image plane. As the first application, the developed microscope is used to measure a refractive-index distribution in optical waveguides. A difference of refractive indices of less than 6 × 10-5 is clearly measured in the submicrometer region.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.2170) General : Equipment and techniques
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
(120.7000) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Transmission
(180.3170) Microscopy : Interference microscopy
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides

Original Manuscript: April 23, 2001
Revised Manuscript: October 29, 2001
Published: March 1, 2002

Junji Endo, Jun Chen, Dai Kobayashi, Yasuo Wada, and Hiroyuki Fujita, "Transmission laser microscope using the phase-shifting technique and its application to measurement of optical waveguides," Appl. Opt. 41, 1308-1314 (2002)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. H. Bruning, D. R. Herriott, J.E. Gallagher, D. P. Rosenfeld, A. D. White, J. Brangaccio, “Digital wavefront measuring interferometry for testing optical surfaces and lenses,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2693–2703 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” Prog. Optics349–393 (1988).
  3. J. F. Biegen, R. A. Smythe, “High resolution phase measuring laser interferometric microscope for engineering surface metrology,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE1009, 35–45 (1988). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Chen, Y. Ishii, K. Murata, “Heterodyne interferometry with a frequency-modulated laser diode,” Appl. Opt. 27, 124–128 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Q. Ru, J. Endo, T. Tanji, A. Tonomura, “High resolution and precision measurement of electron wave by phase-shifting electron holography,” Optik 92, 51–55 (1992).
  6. G. Möllenstedt, H. Dücker, “Beobachtungen und Messungen an biprisma-Interferenzen mit Electronenwellen,” Z. Phys. 145, 377–397 (1956). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited