OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 41, Iss. 9 — Mar. 20, 2002
  • pp: 1615–1628

NOAA-NASA Coastal Zone Color Scanner Reanalysis Effort

Watson W. Gregg, Margarita E. Conkright, John E. O’Reilly, Frederick S. Patt, Menghua H. Wang, James A. Yoder, and Nancy W. Casey  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 41, Issue 9, pp. 1615-1628 (2002)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3058 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Satellite observations of global ocean chlorophyll span more than two decades. However, incompatibilities between processing algorithms prevent us from quantifying natural variability. We applied a comprehensive reanalysis to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) archive, called the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NOAA-NASA) CZCS reanalysis (NCR) effort. NCR consisted of (1) algorithm improvement (AI), where CZCS processing algorithms were improved with modernized atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms and (2) blending where in situ data were incorporated into the CZCS AI to minimize residual errors. Global spatial and seasonal patterns of NCR chlorophyll indicated remarkable correspondence with modern sensors, suggesting compatibility. The NCR permits quantitative analyses of interannual and interdecadal trends in global ocean chlorophyll.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1290) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric optics
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors

Original Manuscript: August 9, 2001
Revised Manuscript: December 11, 2001
Published: March 20, 2002

Watson W. Gregg, Margarita E. Conkright, John E. O’Reilly, Frederick S. Patt, Menghua H. Wang, James A. Yoder, and Nancy W. Casey, "NOAA-NASA Coastal Zone Color Scanner Reanalysis Effort," Appl. Opt. 41, 1615-1628 (2002)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. W. W. Gregg, M. E. Conkright, “Global seasonal climatologies of ocean chlorophyll: blending in situ and satellite data for the CZCS era,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2499–2515 (2001). [CrossRef]
  2. International Ocean Color Coordinating Group, “Minimum requirements for an operational, ocean-color sensor for the open ocean,” IOCCG Report 1. (IOCCG, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada, 1998).
  3. W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 16, 1250–1265 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global set,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989). [CrossRef]
  5. R. W. Reynolds, “A real-time global sea surface temperature analysis,” J. Clim. 1, 75–86 (1988). [CrossRef]
  6. R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner ‘system calibration’: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994). [CrossRef]
  7. R. H. Evans, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, Fla. 33149 (personal communication, May1999).
  8. D. Antoine, Laboratoire d’Oceanographie de Villefranche, 06238 Villefranche sur Mer Cedex, France (personal communication, January2001).
  9. F. S. Patt, R. H. Woodward, W. W. Gregg, “Automated navigation assessment for Earth survey sensors using island targets,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 3311–3336 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. H. R. Gordon, R. H. Evans, “Comment on ‘aerosol and Rayleigh radiance contributions to Coastal Zone Colour Scanner images’ by Eckstein and Simpson,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 14, 537–540 (1993). [CrossRef]
  11. B. A. Eckstein, J. J. Simpson, “Aerosol and Rayleigh radiance contributions to coastal zone colour scanner images,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 135–168 (1991). [CrossRef]
  12. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Daley, Atmospheric Data Analysis (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1991).
  14. D. L. Martin, M. J. Perry, “Minimizing systematic errors from atmospheric multiple scattering and satellite viewing geometry in coastal zone color scanner level IIA imagery,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7309–7322 (1994). [CrossRef]
  15. H. R. Gordon, D. J. Castano, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner atmospheric correction algorithm: multiple scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2111–2122 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. W. Gregg, F. S. Patt, W. E. Esaias, “Initial analysis of ocean color data from OCTS. II. Geometric and radiometric analysis,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5692–5702 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000). [CrossRef]
  19. J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Müller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Morre, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 8–22.
  20. J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Wang, “The SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm updates,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 9, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 57–63.
  22. R. M. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996). [CrossRef]
  23. K. R. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998). [CrossRef]
  24. J.-M. Andre, A. Morel, “Simulated effects of barometric pressure and ozone content upon the estimate of marine phytoplankton from space,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 1029–1037 (1989). [CrossRef]
  25. H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. W. D. Robinson, G. M. Schmidt, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, “Changes made in the operational SeaWiFS processing,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 12–28.
  27. M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Remote Sens. (to be published).
  28. Y. Dandonneau, “A method for the rapid determination of chlorophyll plus phaeopigments in samples collected by merchant ships,” Deep-Sea Res. 29, 647–654 (1982). [CrossRef]
  29. Y. Dandonneau, “Surface chlorophyll concentration in the tropical Pacific Ocean: an analysis of data collected by merchant ships from 1978 to 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 3581–3591 (1992). [CrossRef]
  30. M. E. Conkright, S. Levitus, T. O’Brien, T. P. Boyer, C. Stephens, D. Johnson, L. Stathoplos, O. Baranova, J. Antonov, R. Gelfeld, J. Burney, J. Rochester, C. Forgy, “World ocean database 1998 CD-ROM data set documentation” (National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, Md., 1998).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited