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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 41, Iss. 9 — Mar. 20, 2002
  • pp: 1798–1804

Raman and Rayleigh holographic lidar

Geoff Andersen, Jason K. Brasseur, Randall J. Knize, and Paul Haris  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 41, Issue 9, pp. 1798-1804 (2002)

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We have designed a novel rotational Raman and Rayleigh lidar system that incorporates a simple holographic optical element. The hologram simultaneously disperses and focuses the backscattered signal light so that narrow spectral features can be isolated and detected with high efficiency. By measuring the relative strength of several nitrogen rotational Raman lines, we can obtain an accurate temperature of the atmosphere at a given altitude without the need for external calibration. Simultaneous photon counting of the Rayleigh backscatter signal permits temperature measurements at much higher altitudes.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(090.2890) Holography : Holographic optical elements
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors
(280.3640) Remote sensing and sensors : Lidar
(290.5860) Scattering : Scattering, Raman
(290.5870) Scattering : Scattering, Rayleigh

Original Manuscript: August 28, 2001
Revised Manuscript: December 5, 2001
Published: March 20, 2002

Geoff Andersen, Jason K. Brasseur, Randall J. Knize, and Paul Haris, "Raman and Rayleigh holographic lidar," Appl. Opt. 41, 1798-1804 (2002)

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  27. γ2 of Ref. 3 is for an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Because this value is common to all of the nitrogen RRS lines, the precise value is not necessary to determine the temperature of our scheme. Thus we used the quoted value for 488 nm.
  28. The equation for the transmission of the atmosphere is based on a numerical fit to a low-aerosol content, mid-latitude, springtime lowtran atmosphere at the laser wavelength.
  29. The overall optical efficiency value was estimated from the product of the efficiencies for the telescope fiber coupling (90%), the HOE itself (35%), the coupling into the individual fibers (90%), and the PMTs (10%).
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