OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 42, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2003
  • pp: 135–145

Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: initial simulation, phantom, and clinical results

Hamid Dehghani, Brian W. Pogue, Steven P. Poplack, and Keith D. Paulsen  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 42, Issue 1, pp. 135-145 (2003)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1859 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Three-dimensional (3D), multiwavelength near-infrared tomography has the potential to provide new physiological information about biological tissue function and pathological transformation. Fast and reliable measurements of multiwavelength data from multiple planes over a region of interest, together with adequate model-based nonlinear image reconstruction, form the major components of successful estimation of internal optical properties of the region. These images can then be used to examine the concentration of chromophores such as hemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, water, and lipids that in turn can serve to identify and characterize abnormalities located deep within the domain. We introduce and discuss a 3D modeling method and image reconstruction algorithm that is currently in place. Reconstructed images of optical properties are presented from simulated data, measured phantoms, and clinical data acquired from a breast cancer patient. It is shown that, with a relatively fast 3D inversion algorithm, useful images of optical absorption and scatter can be calculated with good separation and localization in all cases. It is also shown that, by use of the calculated optical absorption over a range of wavelengths, the oxygen saturation distribution of a tissue under investigation can be deduced from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin maps. With this method the reconstructed tumor from the breast cancer patient was found to have a higher oxy-deoxy hemoglobin concentration and also a higher oxygen saturation level than the background, indicating a ductal carcinoma that corresponds well to histology findings.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.6880) Imaging systems : Three-dimensional image acquisition
(170.3010) Medical optics and biotechnology : Image reconstruction techniques
(170.3830) Medical optics and biotechnology : Mammography
(170.6960) Medical optics and biotechnology : Tomography

Original Manuscript: May 14, 2002
Revised Manuscript: September 12, 2002
Published: January 1, 2003

Hamid Dehghani, Brian W. Pogue, Steven P. Poplack, and Keith D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: initial simulation, phantom, and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, C. Abele, H. Kaufman, “Calibration of near-infrared frequency-domain tissue spectroscopy for absolute absorption coefficient quantitation in neonatal head-simulating phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 185–193 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. W. Pogue, S. Geimer, T. McBride, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “3-D simulation of near-infrared diffusion in tissue: boundary conditions and geometry analysis for a finite element reconstruction algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 40, 588–600 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, S. P. Poplack, “Multi-spectral near-infrared tomography: a case study in compensating for water and lipid content in hemoglobin imaging of the breast,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 72–79 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Three dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3278–3287 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, D. Hueber, W. Rosenfeld, D. Maulik, P. G. Stubblefield, M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical mapping of the piglet in real time,” Opt. Express 4, 308–314 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamaru, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3602 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. DiMarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, Q. Zhang, “Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Signal Proc. Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. J. C. Schotland, V. A. Markel, “Inverse scattering with diffusing waves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2767–2777 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. V. Ntziachristos, A. H. Hielscher, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Diffuse optical tomography of highly heterogeneous media,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 470–478 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Jiang, Y. Xu, N. Iftimia, J. Eggert, K. Klove, L. Baron, L. Fajardo, “Three-dimensional optical tomographic imaging of breast in a human subject,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 1334–1340 (2001). [CrossRef]
  12. T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “A parallel-detection frequency-domain near-infrared tomography system for hemoglobin imaging of the breast in vivo,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1817–1824 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. S. R. Arridge, “Topical review: optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999). [CrossRef]
  14. H. B. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, M. S. Patterson, “Frequency-domain optical image reconstruction in turbid media: an experimental study of single-target detectability,” Appl. Opt. 36, 52–63 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Image reconstruction of continuously varying objects and simulated breast cancer lesions,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue III, B. Chance, R. Alfano, B. Tromberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3597, 514–525 (1999).
  16. B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, H. Luo, I. Arif, J. Hira, Y. Pei, A. Bluestone, S. Zhong, R. Andronica, I. Soller, N. Ramirez, S. S. Barbour, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation and calibration protocol for imaging dynamic features in dense-scattering media by optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6466–6486 (2000). [CrossRef]
  18. V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, B. Chance, “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767–2772 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Painchaud, A. Mailloux, M. Morin, S. Verrault, P. Beaudry, “Time domain optical imaging: discrimination between absorption and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3686–3693 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. S. B. Colak, M. B. van der Mark, G. W. t’Hooft, J. H. Hoogenraad, H. S. van der Linden, F. A. Kuijpers, “Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1143–1158 (1999). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, “Optical image reconstruction using frequency-domain data: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 253–266 (1996). [CrossRef]
  23. S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. K. D. Paulsen, H. Jiang, “Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation,” Med. Phys. 22, 691–701 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, “Photon-measurement density functions. 2. Finite-element-method calculations,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8026–8037 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. P. B. Eggermort, G. T. Herman, A. Lent, “Iterative algorithms for large partitioned systems, with application to image reconstruction,” Linear Algebra Appl. 40, 37–67 (1981). [CrossRef]
  27. T. O. McBride, “Spectroscopic reconstructed near infrared tomographic imaging for breast cancer diagnosis,” Ph.D. dissertation (Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H.2001).
  28. J. Schoberl, “NETGEN—an automatic 3D tetrahedral mesh generator,” http://www.sfb013.uni-linz.ac.at/joachim/netgen/ .
  29. S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, E. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited