OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 42, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 2003
  • pp: 2043–2051

Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H 2 O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers

Holger Teichert, Thomas Fernholz, and Volker Ebert  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 42, Issue 12, pp. 2043-2051 (2003)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.42.002043


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (321 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We present what is to our knowledge the first near-infrared diode-laser-based absorption spectrometer that is suitable for simultaneous in situ measurement of carbon monoxide, water vapor, and temperature in the combustion chamber (20-m diameter, 13-m path length) of a 600-MW lignite-fired power plant. A fiber-coupled distributed-feedback diode-laser module at 1.56 μm served for CO detection, and a Fabry-Perot diode laser at 813 nm was used to determine H2O concentrations and temperature from multiline water spectra. Despite severe light losses (transmission, <10-3) and strong background radiation we achieved a resolution of 1.9 × 10-4 (1σ) fractional absorption, equivalent to 200 parts in 106 by volume of CO (at 1450 K, 105 Pa) with 30-s averaging time.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(120.1740) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Combustion diagnostics
(140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
(140.2020) Lasers and laser optics : Diode lasers

History
Original Manuscript: May 20, 2002
Revised Manuscript: August 6, 2002
Published: April 20, 2003

Citation
Holger Teichert, Thomas Fernholz, and Volker Ebert, "Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H 2 O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2043-2051 (2003)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-42-12-2043


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. C. Stultz, J. B. Kitto, Steam: Its Generation and Use (Babcock Wilcox, Barberton, Ohio1992).
  2. H. Spliethoff, “Verbrennung fester Brennstoffe zur Strom- und Wärmeerzeugung,” progress report, series 6, number 443 (VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany, 2000).
  3. P. T. Mosley, J. O. W. Norris, D. E. Williams, eds., Techniques and Mechanisms in Gas Sensing (Adam Hilger, New York, 1991).
  4. R. T. Ku, J. O. Sample, E. David Hinkley, “Long-path monitoring of atmospheric carbon monoxide with a tunable diode laser system,” Appl. Opt. 14, 854–861 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. K. Hanson, “Absorption spectroscopy in sooting flames using a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 19, 482–484 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. M. Schoenung, R. K. Hanson, “CO and temperature measurements in a flat flame by laser absorption spectroscopy and probe techniques,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 24, 227–237 (1981). [CrossRef]
  7. P. Werle, “Spectroscopic trace gas analysis using semiconductor diode lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 805–822 (1996). [CrossRef]
  8. J. H. Miller, S. Elreedy, B. Ahvazi, F. Woldu, P. Hassanzadeh, “Tunable diode-laser measurement of carbon monoxide concentration and temperature in a laminar methane-air diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6082–6089 (1993). [CrossRef]
  9. P. H. Krupenie, “The band spectrum of carbon monoxide,” Natl. Stand. Ref. Data Ser.NBS 5 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1966).
  10. H. Sasada, K. Yamada, “Calibration lines of HCN in the 1.5 μm region,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3535–3547 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J.-C. Nicolas, A. N. Baranov, Y. Cuminal, Y. Rouillard, C. Alibert, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy of carbon monoxide around 2.35 μm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7906–7911 (1998). [CrossRef]
  12. M. E. Webber, J. Wang, S. T. Sanders, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “In situ combustion measurement of CO, CO2, H2O and temperature using diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 407–413 (2000). [CrossRef]
  13. J. Wang, M. Maiorov, D. S. Baer, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. C. Connolly, R. K. Hanson, “In situ combustion measurements of CO with diode-laser absorption near 2.3 μm,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5579–5589 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, W. Durante, M. Allen, R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Detection of biogenic CO production above vascular cell cultures using a near-room-temperature QC-DFB laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 95–99 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, S. Wehe, M. G. Allen, “Thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade-laser-based sensor for the continuous monitoring of ambient atmospheric carbon monoxide,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1169–1173 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode laser sensor for measurements of CO, CO2, and CH4 in combustion flows,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8745–8752 (1997). [CrossRef]
  17. D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, “Observation of CO and CO2 absorption near 1.57 μm with an external-cavity diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3298–3300 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Gabrysch, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, “Simultaneous detection of CO and CO2 using a semiconductor DFB diode laser at 1.578 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 75–79 (1997). [CrossRef]
  19. D. B. Oh, M. E. Paige, D. S. Bomse, “Frequency modulation multiplexing for simultaneous detection of multiple gases by use of wavelength modulation spectroscopy with diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2499–2501 (1998). [CrossRef]
  20. L. G. Blevins, W. M. Pitts, “Carbon monoxide measurement using a near-infrared tunable diode laser,” in National Institute of Standards and Technology Annual Conference on Fire Research: Book of Abstracts. November 2–5, 1998, Gaithersburg, Md., K. A. Beall, ed. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 21–22 (1998).
  21. L. G. Blevins, B. W. Peterson, “Obtaining and interpreting near-infrared wavelength modulation absorption signals from hot fire gases: practical issues,” in Proceedings of Fall Technical Meeting, Combustion Institute/Eastern States Section (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1999), pp. 85–88.
  22. B. L. Upschulte, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, “Measurements of CO, CO2, OH, and H2O in room-temperature and combustion gases by use of a broadly current-tuned multisection InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1506–1512 (1999). [CrossRef]
  23. J. J. Nikkari, J. M. Di Iorio, M. J. Thomson, “In situ combustion measurements of CO, H2O, and temperature with a 1.58-μm diode laser and two-tone frequency modulation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 446–452 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. G. Allen, B. L. Upschulte, D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. J. Kessler, P. A. Mulhall, “Overview of diode laser measurements in large-scale test facilities,” paper AIAA-2000-2452, presented at the 21st Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, Denver, Colo., 19–22 June 2000 (American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2000), pp. 2000–2452.
  25. K. Muta, M. Tanoura, H. Honda, “In-situ measurement of CO by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy in a large scale waste test furnace,” presented at the International Laser Sensing Symposium, Fukui, Japan, 6–8 September 1999.
  26. H. E. Schlosser, B. A. Williams, R. S. Sheinson, J. W. Fleming, V. Ebert, “In-situ-determination of molecular oxygen concentration in full-scale fire suppression tests using TDLAS,” in Proceedings of the Second Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2001), paper 164.
  27. V. Ebert, J. Fitzer, I. Gerstenberg, K.-U. Pleban, H. Pitz, J. Wolfrum, M. Jochem, J. Martin, “Simultaneous laser-based in-situ-detection of oxygen and water in a waste incinerator for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1301–1308 (1998).
  28. V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “Simultaneous diode-laser-based in-situ detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power-plant,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000). [CrossRef]
  29. H. Pitz, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, V. Ebert, “Diode-laser-based in-situ CH4-detection for the surveillance of ignition processes in gas-fired power-plants,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 36 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 111–113.
  30. E. Schlosser, T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, V. Ebert, “In situ detection of potassium atoms in high-temperature coal-combustion systems using near-infrared-diode lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta 58, 2347–2359 (2002). [CrossRef]
  31. P. Vogel, V. Ebert, “Near shot noise detection of oxygen in the A-band with vertical-cavity-surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 127–135 (2001). [CrossRef]
  32. T. Fernholz, H. Pitz, V. Ebert, “In-situ monitoring of water vapor and gas temperature in a coal fired power-plant using near-infrared diode lasers,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 36 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 77–79.
  33. V. Ebert, K.-U. Pleban, J. Wolfrum, “In-situ oxygen-monitoring using near-infrared diode lasers and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 206–209.
  34. J. A. Silver, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy for trace species detection: theory and comparison among experimental methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 707–717 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldmann, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992). [CrossRef]
  36. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The Hitran molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (Hitran Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998). [CrossRef]
  37. L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, D. Goorvitch, R. L. Hawkins, J. E. A. Selby, C. Camy-Peret, J. M. Flaud, J. Schroeder, A. McCann are preparing a manuscript titled “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database.”
  38. Further information on HITRAN and HITEMP available from www.hitran.com .

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited