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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 42, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 2003
  • pp: 2166–2173

Development of a gallium-doped germanium far-infrared photoconductor direct hybrid two-dimensional array

Mikio Fujiwara, Takanori Hirao, Mitsunobu Kawada, Hiroshi Shibai, Shuji Matsuura, Hidehiro Kaneda, Mikhail Patrashin, and Takao Nakagawa  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 42, Issue 12, pp. 2166-2173 (2003)

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To our knowledge, we are the first to successfully report a direct hybrid two-dimensional (2D) detector array in the far-infrared region. Gallium-doped germanium (Ge:Ga) has been used extensively to produce sensitive far-infrared detectors with a cutoff wavelength of ≅110 μm (2.7 THz). It is widely used in the fields of astronomy and molecular and solid spectroscopy. However, Ge:Ga photoconductors must be cooled below 4.2 K to reduce thermal noise, and this operating condition makes it difficult to develop a large format array because of the need for a warm amplifier. Development of Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays to take 2D terahertz images is now an important target in such research fields as space astronomy. We present the design of a 20 × 3 Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor array directly hybridized to a Si p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor readout integrated circuit using indium-bump technology. The main obstacles in creating this 2D array were (1) fabricating a monolithic Ge:Ga 2D array with a longitudinal configuration, (2) developing a cryogenic capacitive transimpedance amplifier, and (3) developing a technology for connecting the detector to the electronics. With this technology, a prototype Ge:Ga photoconductor with a direct hybrid structure has shown a responsivity as high as 14.6 A/W and a minimum detectable power of 5.6 × 10-17 W for an integration time of 0.14 s when it was cooled to 2.1 K. Its noise is limited by the readout circuit with 20 μV/Hz1/2 at 1 Hz. Vibration and cooling tests demonstrated that this direct hybrid structure is strong enough for spaceborne instruments. This detector array will be installed on the Japanese infrared satellite ASTRO-F.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.1240) Detectors : Arrays
(040.3060) Detectors : Infrared
(040.5150) Detectors : Photoconductivity
(040.5160) Detectors : Photodetectors

Original Manuscript: June 11, 2002
Revised Manuscript: December 9, 2002
Published: April 20, 2003

Mikio Fujiwara, Takanori Hirao, Mitsunobu Kawada, Hiroshi Shibai, Shuji Matsuura, Hidehiro Kaneda, Mikhail Patrashin, and Takao Nakagawa, "Development of a gallium-doped germanium far-infrared photoconductor direct hybrid two-dimensional array," Appl. Opt. 42, 2166-2173 (2003)

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