OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 42, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 2003
  • pp: 2188–2197

Analysis of thermal decay and prediction of operational lifetime for a type I boron-germanium codoped Fiber Bragg grating

Suchandan Pal, Jharna Mandal, Tong Sun, and Kenneth T. V. Grattan  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 42, Issue 12, pp. 2188-2197 (2003)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (183 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The thermal decay of a type I fiber Bragg grating written at 248 nm in boron-germanium codoped silica fiber was examined in terms of its reflectivity and Bragg wavelength change. In addition to the decay in reflectivity, which was observed, a shift in Bragg wavelength over the temperature range considered was seen. A mechanism for the decay in the reflectivity was developed and modeled according to a power law, and the results were compared with those from the aging curve approach. The wavelength shift was simulated by modification of the power law, which was also found to fit well to the experimental data. Temperature-induced reversible and irreversible changes in the grating characteristics were observed and considered to be a means to predict the working lifetime of the grating at comparatively low temperatures. Accelerated aging was also reviewed and compared in terms of reflectivity and Bragg wavelength shift. It was shown that the temperature-induced irreversible shift in the Bragg wavelengths could not be predicted by use of the isothermal decay of the refractive-index modulation. The results were discussed within the framework of the current theoretical approaches for predicting the stability of gratings of this type.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(120.6780) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Temperature
(140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics

Original Manuscript: July 4, 2002
Revised Manuscript: November 27, 2002
Published: April 20, 2003

Suchandan Pal, Jharna Mandal, Tong Sun, and Kenneth T. V. Grattan, "Analysis of thermal decay and prediction of operational lifetime for a type I boron-germanium codoped Fiber Bragg grating," Appl. Opt. 42, 2188-2197 (2003)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. Othonos, K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1999).
  2. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, Optics and Photonics Series (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).
  3. T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, D. Monoroe, “Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73–80 (1994). [CrossRef]
  4. S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, D. Goodchild, “Thermal decay of fiber Bragg gratings written in boron and germanium codoped silica fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470–1477 (1997). [CrossRef]
  5. L. Dong, W. F. Liu, “Thermal decay of fiber Bragg gratings of positive and negative index changes formed at 193 nm in a boron-codoped germanosilicate fiber,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8222–8226 (1997). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Kannan, J. Z. Y. Guo, P. J. Lemaire, “Thermal stability analysis of uv-induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1478–1483 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. G. Brambilla, H. Rutt, “Fiber Bragg gratings with enhanced thermal stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3259–3261 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. D. Razafimahatratra, P. Niay, M. Douay, B. Poumellec, I. Riant, “Comparison of isochronal and isothermal decays of Bragg gratings written through continuous-wave exposure of an unloaded germanosilicate fiber,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1924–1933 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. I. Riant, B. Poumellec, “Thermal decay of gratings written in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibres,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1603–1604 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Fokine, “Formation of thermally stable chemical composition gratings in optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1759–1765 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Fokine, “Thermal stability of chemical composition gratings in fluorine-germanium-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1016–1018 (2002). [CrossRef]
  12. D. L. Williams, R. P. Smith, “Accelerated lifetime tests on uv written intra-core gratings in boron germania codoped silica fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2120–2121 (1995). [CrossRef]
  13. K. E. Chisholm, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, “Effects of thermal annealing on Bragg fibre gratings in boron/germanium co-doped fibre,” J. Phys. D 31, 61–64 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. Q. Wang, A. Hidayat, P. Niay, M. Douay, “Influence of blanket postexposure on the thermal stability of the spectral characteristics of gratings written in a telecommunication fiber using light at 193 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1078–1083 (2000). [CrossRef]
  15. T. Sun, S. Pal, J. Mandal, K. T. V. Grattan, “Fibre Bragg grating fabrication using fluoride excimer laser for sensing and communication applications,” in Central Laser Facility Annual Report 2001/2002 (Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire, U.K., 2002), pp. 147–149.
  16. A. Hidayat, Q. Wang, P. Niay, M. Douay, B. Poumellec, I. Riant, “Temperature-induced reversible changes in the spectral characteristics of fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2632–2641 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. M. J. LuValle, L. R. Copeland, S. Kannan, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, “A strategy for extrapolation in accelerated testing,” Bell Lab. Tech. J.July–Sept., 139–147 (1998).
  18. B. Poumellec, “Links between writing and erasure (or stability) of Bragg gratings in disordered media,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 108–115 (1998). [CrossRef]
  19. S. A. Wade, D. I. Forsyth, Q. Guofu, K. T. V. Grattan, “Fiber optic sensor for dual measurement of temperature and strain using a combined fluorescent lifetime decay and fiber Bragg grating technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3186–3190 (2001). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited