OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 42, Iss. 13 — May. 1, 2003
  • pp: 2422–2430

Optical metrology for analysis of lobster-eye x-ray optics

Thomas H. K. Irving, Andrew G. Peele, and Keith A. Nugent  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 42, Issue 13, pp. 2422-2430 (2003)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.42.002422


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1442 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A new method that uses optical microscopy to determine the physical structure of lobster-eye x-ray optics is described. This approach offers the ability to predict x-ray performance without having to take an x-ray measurement. An overlapping series of images of the entrance and exit faces of an optic are obtained and examined by purpose-built software. A 24-parameter description of each channel is obtained from which a quantitative analysis of all the major optic defects, except surface roughness, is performed. Results for a planar lobster-eye optic are used to illustrate this technique and discuss its abilities as well as directions for future enhancements.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.2960) Image processing : Image analysis
(110.7440) Imaging systems : X-ray imaging
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(340.7440) X-ray optics : X-ray imaging

Citation
Thomas H. K. Irving, Andrew G. Peele, and Keith A. Nugent, "Optical metrology for analysis of lobster-eye x-ray optics," Appl. Opt. 42, 2422-2430 (2003)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-42-13-2422


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “An X-ray all-sky monitor with extraordinary sensitivity,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 279, 733–750 (1996).
  2. G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O’Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, “Lobster-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station,” in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115–126 (2002).
  3. G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, and W. B. Feller, “X-ray focusing using square-pore microchannel plates: first observation of cruxiform image structure,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 324, 404–407 (1993).
  4. P. Kaaret, P. Geissbühler, A. Chen, and E. Glavinas, “X-ray focusing using microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7339–7343 (1992).
  5. K. Vogt, “Zur Optik des FluSSkrebsauges,” Z. Naturforsch. 30c, 691 (1975).
  6. M. F. Land, “Animal eyes with mirror optics,” Sci. Am. 239, 88–99 (1978).
  7. H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “X-ray focusing using square channel-capillary arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1542–1561 (1991).
  8. A. G. Peele, “Investigation of etched silicon wafers for lobster-eye optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1268–1273 (1999).
  9. A. N. Brunton, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, and I. C. E. Turcu “Metrology and modeling of microchannel plate x-ray optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5461–5470 (1997).
  10. A. N. Brunton, A. P. Martin, G. W. Fraser, and W. B. Feller, “A study of 8.5 μm microchannel plate x-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 431, 356–365 (1999).
  11. A. G. Peele, G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, A. Martin, R. M. Rideout, N. E. White, R. Petre, and W. B. Feller, “Recent studies of lobster-eye optics,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover and A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE 3444, 404–415 (1998).
  12. M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E. Tomaselli, G. Fraser, A Brunton, E. Flyckt, M. K. Krumrey, and A. Souvorov, “Microchannel-plate-based x-ray optics,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund and K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE 3765, 452–458 (1999).
  13. A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, A. V. Rode, K. Gabel, M. C. Richardson, R. Strack, and W. Siegmund, “X-ray focusing with lobster-eye optics: a comparison of theory with experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4420–4425 (1996).
  14. T. H. K. Irving, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, and S. P. Brumby, “Faster, better, cheaper metrology of lobster-eye (square-pore) optics,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, and S. Oestreich, eds., Proc SPIE 4145, 209–218 (2001).
  15. W. W. Zhang, A. G. Peele, R. Petre, Y. Soong, and N. E. White, “Practical implementation of lobster-eye optics,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover and A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE 3444, 416–422 (1998).
  16. A. S. Tremsin and O. H. Siegmund, “Measurements of metric nonlinearities of MCP-based lobster-eye x-ray telescope optics by moiré interferometry,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely and J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE 3356, 866–875 (1998).
  17. A. S. Tremsin, O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, P. N. Jelinsky, and J. M. Stock, “Electronic and optical moiré interference with microchannel plates: artifacts and benefits,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2240–2248 (1999).
  18. A. G. Peele, “Deconvolution of an extended object viewed by a lobster-eye telescope,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 459, 354–364 (2001).
  19. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: the Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, (1992).
  20. P. Rockett, “The accuracy of sub-pixel localisation in the Canny edge detector,” in Proceedings of British Machine Vision Conference,” T. Pridmore and D. Elliman, eds. (British Machine Vision Association, 71 Graham Rd., Malvern, Worcestershire WR14 2JS, UK, 1999), pp. 392–401.
  21. Any surface that can be traced over by a line that moves through three-dimensional space is known as a ruled surface. If two independent such rulings describe a single surface, such a surface is known as doubly ruled.
  22. M. Lampton, “The microchannel image intensifier,” Sci. Am. 245, 46–55 (1981).
  23. M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, E Tomaselli, R. Fairbend, J.-P. Boutot, S. O. Flyckt, A. Brunton, G. J. Price, G. W. Fraser, C. Herrmann, M. K. Krumrey, E. Ziegler, and A. K. Freund, “High-resolution micropore x-ray optics produced with microchannel plate technology,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, and S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE 4145, 188–192 (2001).
  24. A. G. Peele, “X-ray optics of square channel arrays,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia, 1996).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited