We have applied fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) to the autofluorescence of different kinds of biological tissue <i>in vitro</i>, including animal tissue sections and knee joints as well as human teeth, obtaining two-dimensional maps with functional contrast. We find that fluorescence decay profiles of biological tissue are well described by the stretched exponential function (StrEF), which can represent the complex nature of tissue. The StrEF yields a continuous distribution of fluorescence lifetimes, which can be extracted with an inverse Laplace transformation, and additional information is provided by the width of the distribution. Our experimental results from FLIM microscopy in combination with the StrEF analysis indicate that this technique is ready for clinical deployment, including portability that is through the use of a compact picosecond diode laser as the excitation source. The results obtained with our FLIM endoscope successfully demonstrated the viability of this modality, though they need further optimization. We expect a custom-designed endoscope with optimized illumination and detection efficiencies to provide significantly improved performance.
© 2003 Optical Society of America
(170.2520) Medical optics and biotechnology : Fluorescence microscopy
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(170.6920) Medical optics and biotechnology : Time-resolved imaging
Jan Siegel, Daniel S. Elson, Stephen E. D. Webb, K. C. Benny Lee, Alexis Vlandas, Giovanni L. Gambaruto, Sandrine Lévêque-Fort, M. John Lever, Paul J. Tadrous, Gordon W. H. Stamp, Andrew L. Wallace, Ann Sandison, Tim F. Watson, Fernando Alvarez, and Paul M. W. French, "Studying Biological Tissue with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging: Microscopy, Endoscopy, and Complex Decay Profiles," Appl. Opt. 42, 2995-3004 (2003)