OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 42, Iss. 16 — Jun. 1, 2003
  • pp: 3271–3276

Dependence of the Bragg condition on an external electric field for a polymeric photorefractive material

Won-Jae Joo, Hyunaee Chun, In Kyu Moon, and Nakjoong Kim  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 42, Issue 16, pp. 3271-3276 (2003)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (134 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We investigated the effect of an applied electric field on the Bragg condition of degenerate four-wave mixing in a polymeric photorefractive material with a low glass-transition temperature. For a polymeric photorefractive material the application of an external electric field as is necessary for photorefractivity leads to birefringence of the material by poling of the nonlinear optical chromophore. Because the propagation vectors of the pumping and reading beams inside the material are influenced by the refractive index of the material, the Bragg condition depends on the magnitude of the external field. Using an oriented gas model and the-coupled-mode theory, we numerically analyzed the Bragg-mismatch effect that causes a reduction in diffraction efficiency as a function of an external field. We present the boundary conditions for sample thickness and grating spacing for which the Bragg-mismatch effect must be taken into account.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.7330) Diffraction and gratings : Volume gratings
(160.4890) Materials : Organic materials
(160.5320) Materials : Photorefractive materials
(190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing

Original Manuscript: February 10, 2003
Published: June 1, 2003

Won-Jae Joo, Hyunaee Chun, In Kyu Moon, and Nakjoong Kim, "Dependence of the Bragg condition on an external electric field for a polymeric photorefractive material," Appl. Opt. 42, 3271-3276 (2003)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. L. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Lippelen, N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature 371, 497–500 (1994). [CrossRef]
  2. A Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, “High performance photorefractive polymer with improved stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515–1517 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1993).
  4. J. A. Herlocker, K. B. Ferrio, E. Hendrickx, B. D. Guenther, S. Mery, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, “Direct observation of orientation limit in a fast photorefractive polymer composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2253–2255 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. D. Wright, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, J. D. Casperson, M. DeClue, W. E. Moerner, “High-speed photorefractive polymer composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1490–1492 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. P. Yeh, “Fundamental limit of the speed of photorefractive effect and its impact on device applications and material research,” Appl. Opt. 26, 602–604 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Khand, D. J. Binks, D. P. West, “Effect of field-dependent photogeneration on holographic contrast in photorefractive polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2516–2519 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. J. S. Schildkraut, A. V. Buettner, “Theory and simulation of the formation and erasure of space-charge gratings in photoconductive polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 1888–1893 (1992). [CrossRef]
  9. I. A. Taj, P. Xie, T. Mishima, “Fast switching of photorefractive output by applied electric field,” Opt. Commun. 189, 7–15 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. E. Chuang, D. Psaltis, “Storage of 1000 holograms with use of a dual-wavelength method,” Appl. Opt 36, 8445–8454 (1997). [CrossRef]
  11. H. Kogelink, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969). [CrossRef]
  12. K. Nonaka, “Off-Bragg analysis of the diffraction efficiency of transmission photorefractive hologram,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4792–4800 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Tao, Z. H. Song, D. R. Selviah, “Bragg-shift of holographic gratings in photorefractive Fe: LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 108, 144–152 (1994). [CrossRef]
  14. B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1991), Chap. 1. [CrossRef]
  15. H. S. Nalwa, S. Miyata, eds., Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.1997), p. 465.
  16. H. Chun, I. K. Moon, D. H. Shin, N. Kim, “Preparation of highly efficient polymeric photorefractive composite containing isophorone-based NLO chromophore,” Chem. Mater. 13, 2816–2817 (2001). [CrossRef]
  17. W.-J. Joo, N.-J. Kim, H. Chun, I. K. Moon, N. Kim, C.-H. Oh, “Determination of the space-charge field in polymeric photorefractive material,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6471–6475 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. W.-J. Joo, H.-D. Shin, C.-H. Oh, S.-H. Song, B.-S. Ko, Y.-K. Han, “Novel mechanism of fast relaxation of photo-induced anisotropy in a poly(malonic ester) containing p-cyanoazobenzene,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 8848–8851 (2000). [CrossRef]
  19. P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1993), Chaps. 2 and 3.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited