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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 42, Iss. 19 — Jul. 1, 2003
  • pp: 4125–4136

Near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging with area illumination and area detection: the forward imaging problem

Alan B. Thompson, Daniel J. Hawrysz, and Eva M. Sevick-Muraca  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 42, Issue 19, pp. 4125-4136 (2003)

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Fluorescence frequency-domain photon migration measurements were acquired from tissue phantoms, each containing a fluorescent target, by means of area illumination and area detection on the same surface and for the first time, to our knowledge, compared with predictions computed with a numerical solution to the coupled photon diffusion equations. We accomplished area illumination and area detection using a planar, intensity-modulated excitation light source and a gain-modulated intensified charge-coupled device camera, respectively. A 1-ml vessel containing 1-μm solution of Indocyanine Green in 1% Liposyn was immersed 1 cm deep in each 512-ml tissue phantom. For most tissue phantoms, the background surrounding the 1-ml target was composed of Liposyn solution containing Indocyanine Green or 3,3′-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine Iodide such that the target-to-background ratio of fluorescence yield was ≥10:1. Measurements of fluorescence modulation amplitude and phase were predicted with a mean error ranging from 10.1% to 13.6% and 0.56° to 1.72°, respectively. These numbers are similar to those obtained by use of single-pixel frequency-domain photon migration techniques and validate the potential use of area illumination and area detection for biomedical imaging of tissues. Results also demonstrate that target-to-background ratios of fluorescence yield and fluorescence lifetime significantly affect target detectability.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.5270) Medical optics and biotechnology : Photon density waves
(170.6920) Medical optics and biotechnology : Time-resolved imaging
(300.2530) Spectroscopy : Fluorescence, laser-induced

Original Manuscript: November 21, 2002
Revised Manuscript: April 4, 2003
Published: July 1, 2003

Alan B. Thompson, Daniel J. Hawrysz, and Eva M. Sevick-Muraca, "Near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging with area illumination and area detection: the forward imaging problem," Appl. Opt. 42, 4125-4136 (2003)

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