The titanium suboxides TiO, Ti<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, and Ti<sub>3</sub>O<sub>5</sub> are widely used to produce films of titanium dioxide by reactive evaporation. If they are evaporated in high vacuum, however, they yield absorbing TiO<sub><i>x</i></sub> films with a transmission color varying between blue and gray. We investigated the specific properties of these TiO<sub><i>x</i></sub> films. TiO, Ti<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, Ti<sub>3</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, and titanium metal were evaporated in high vacuum upon glass substrates at 25° and 250 °C. Differences in chemical composition, transmission and reflection, color, stress, and abrasion resistance of these films, depending on the starting material and the substrate temperature, were evaluated.
© 2003 Optical Society of America
Friedrich Waibel, Elmar Ritter, and Robert Linsbod, "Properties of TiOx Films Prepared by Electron-Beam Evaporation of Titanium and Titanium Suboxides," Appl. Opt. 42, 4590-4593 (2003)