OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 42, Iss. 23 — Aug. 10, 2003
  • pp: 4747–4757

Design and demonstration of a switching engine for a binary true-time-delay device that uses a White cell

Richard Higgins, Niru K. Nahar, and Betty Lise Anderson  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 42, Issue 23, pp. 4747-4757 (2003)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (220 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Optical true-time-delay devices based on the White cell can be divided into two general types: polynomial cells, in which the number of delays that can be obtained is related to the number of times m that a beam bounces in the cell raised to some power, and exponential cells, in which the number of delays is proportional to some number raised to the power of m. In exponential cells, the topic to be addressed, the spatial light modulator switches between a delay element and a null path on each bounce. We describe an improved design of this switching engine, which contains a liquid-crystal switch and a White cell. We examine astigmatism and corrections for it and present a specific design.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(070.1170) Fourier optics and signal processing : Analog optical signal processing
(200.4740) Optics in computing : Optical processing
(220.1000) Optical design and fabrication : Aberration compensation
(230.3720) Optical devices : Liquid-crystal devices
(280.5110) Remote sensing and sensors : Phased-array radar

Original Manuscript: December 3, 2002
Published: August 10, 2003

Richard Higgins, Niru K. Nahar, and Betty Lise Anderson, "Design and demonstration of a switching engine for a binary true-time-delay device that uses a White cell," Appl. Opt. 42, 4747-4757 (2003)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic aspects of modern radar,” in The Artech House Optoelectronics Library, B. Culshaw, A. Rogers, H. Taylor, eds. (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994), p. 550.
  2. K. P. Jackson, S. A. Newton, B. Moslehi, M. Tur, C. C. Cutler, J. W. Goodman, H. J. Shaw, “Optical fiber delay-line signal processing,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn. MTT-33, 193–209 (1985). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Sales, J. Pampany, J. Martí, D. Pastor, “Solutions to the synthesis problem of optical delay line filters,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2438–2440 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. White, “Long optical paths of large aperture,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 285–288 (1942). [CrossRef]
  5. J. U. White, “Very long optical paths in air,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 411–416 (1976). [CrossRef]
  6. B. L. Anderson, C. D. Liddle, “Optical true time delay for phased-array antennas: demonstration of a quadratic White cell,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4912–4921 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. L. Anderson, R. Mital, “Polynomial-based optical true-time delay devices with microelectromechanical mirror arrays,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5449–5461 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. A. Collins, B. L. Anderson, “Device and method for producing optically-controlled incremental time delays,” U.S. patent6,388,615 (14May2002).
  9. B. L. Anderson, S. A. Collins, C. A. Klein, E. A. Beecher, S. B. Brown, “Optically produced true-time delays for phased antenna arrays,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8493–8503 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. T. H. Edwards, “Multiple-traverse absorption cell design,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 98–102 (1961). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited