OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 42, Iss. 25 — Sep. 1, 2003
  • pp: 5054–5063

Response of a silicon photodiode to pulsed radiation

Robert E. Vest and Steven Grantham  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 42, Issue 25, pp. 5054-5063 (2003)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.42.005054


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (213 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Both the integrated-charge and the peak-voltage responsivity of a 1-cm2 Si photodiode optimized for the extreme ultraviolet have been measured with 532-nm-wavelength pulsed radiation. The peak power of the optical pulse is varied from 35 mW to 24 kW with a pulse width of 8.25 ns. A decrease in responsivity is observed with increasing pulse energy, and a model is presented that accounts for the observed loss of responsivity. The integrated-charge responsivity decreases because the presence of photogenerated majority carriers increases the direct recombination rate. The peak-voltage responsivity is reduced because the electric susceptibility of the electrons and holes in the depletion region increases the capacitance of the device. The influence of an applied reverse bias on both responsivities is investigated. The integrated-charge responsivity is found to be identical, with a 1% uncertainty, to the cw responsivity of the device if the energy dependence is considered.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(120.5630) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Radiometry
(230.5170) Optical devices : Photodiodes

History
Original Manuscript: February 28, 2003
Revised Manuscript: May 22, 2003
Published: September 1, 2003

Citation
Robert E. Vest and Steven Grantham, "Response of a silicon photodiode to pulsed radiation," Appl. Opt. 42, 5054-5063 (2003)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-42-25-5054


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. V. Banine, “Update on EUVL source requirements,” presented at the Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Source Workshop, Dallas, Tex., 14 October 2002.
  2. C. Tarrio, R. E. Vest, S. E. Grantham, “Absolute extreme-ultraviolet metrology,” in Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Metrology at NIST, C. Londono, ed., Proc. SPIE4450, 94–107 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. R. E. Vest, L. R. Canfield, M. L. Furst, R. M. Graves, A. Hamilton, L. R. Hughey, T. B. Lucatorto, R. P. Madden, “NIST programs for radiometry in the far ultraviolet spectral region,” in Ultraviolet Atmospheric and Space Remote Sensing: Methods and Instrumentation II, G. R. Carruthers, K. F. Dymond, eds., Proc. SPIE3818, 15–26 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. R. Thornagel, R. Klein, G. Ulm, “The electron storage ring BESSY II as a primary source standard from the visible to the x-ray range,” Metrologia 38, 385–389 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. R. Stuik, F. Scholze, J. Tümmler, F. Bijkerk, “Absolute calibration of a multilayer-based XUV diagnostic,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 492, 305–316 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. J. F. Seely, C. N. Boyer, G. E. Holland, J. L. Weaver, “X-ray absolute calibration of the time response of a silicon photodiode,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5209–5217 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Stuik, F. Bijkerk, “Linearity of p-n junction photodiodes under pulsed irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 489, 370–378 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983). [CrossRef]
  9. R. Soufli, E. M. Gullikson, “Reflectance measurements on clean surfaces for the determination of optical constants of silicon in the extreme ultraviolet-soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5499–5507 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. E. Vest, E. Wilcox, S. E. Grantham, C. Tarrio, “Calibration of detectors for extreme ultraviolet lithography in pulsed radiation,” presented at the NewRad Conference, Gaithersburg, Md., 20–24 May 2002.
  11. R. Korde, J. S. Cable, L. R. Canfield, “One gigarad passivating nitrided oxides for 100-percent internal quantum efficiency silicon photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40, 1655–1659 (1993). [CrossRef]
  12. L. R. Canfield, “Photodiode detectors,” in Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy II, J. A. R. Samson, D. L. Ederer, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1998), pp. 117–138. [CrossRef]
  13. H. O. Funsten, D. M. Suszcynsky, S. M. Ritzau, R. Korde, “Response of 100% internal quantum efficiency silicon photodiodes to 200 eV-40 keV electrons,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 44, 2561–2565 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. L. R. Canfield, J. Kerner, R. Korde, “Stability and quantum efficiency performance of silicon photodiode detectors in the far ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3940–3943 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. F. Seely, “Responsivity model for a silicon photodiode in the extreme ultraviolet,” in Instrumentation for UV/EUV Astronomy and Solar Missions, S. Fineschi, C. M. Korendyke, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. E. Woodgate, eds., Proc. SPIE4139, 1–7 (2000). [CrossRef]
  16. “NIST Optoelectronics Division Home Page,” retrieved 19December2002, http://www.boulder.nist.gov/div815/ .
  17. H. Laabs, M. Dowell, Optoelectronics Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colo. 80305 (personal communication, 15May2002).
  18. R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Cunningham, R. E. Vest, E. Gullikson, “Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 40, S145–S149 (2003). [CrossRef]
  19. S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources,” Metrologia 37, 579–582 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. “NIST Optical Technology Division Home Page,” retrieved 19December2002, http://physics.nist.gov/Divisions/Div844/div844.html .
  21. T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, C. L. Cromer, “Realization of a scale of absolute spectral response using the National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4392–4403 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. Sapoval, C. Herman, Physics of Semiconductors (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1995). [CrossRef]
  23. P. Singh, “Lecture 11 from ECE 3590 Semiconductor Materials and Devices” (Villanova University, 11June1997), retrieved Nov2002, http://www.ece.villanova.edu/~singh/lec11/sld027.html .
  24. Technical Advisory Group 4, Metrology, International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology, 2nd ed. (International Organization for Standards, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993).
  25. M. Richter, U. Kroth, A. Gottwald, C. Gerth, K. Tiedtke, T. Saito, I. Tassy, K. Vogler, “Metrology of pulsed radiation for 157-nm lithography,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7167–7172 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited