OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 42, Iss. 3 — Jan. 20, 2003
  • pp: 390–393

Bright superior mirages

Waldemar H. Lehn  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 42, Issue 3, pp. 390-393 (2003)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (764 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Superior mirages of unusual brightness are occasionally observed. Two such cases, photographed over the frozen surface of Lake Winnipeg, Canada, are documented. Visually, these mirages appear as featureless bright barriers far out on the lake. They are just images of the lake ice, yet the luminance in one case was 2.5 times (in the other, 1.7 times) the luminance of the ice surface in front of the mirage. The mirage itself can be modeled by means of a conduction inversion, but a proper explanation of the brightness is not yet available.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.4030) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Mirages and refraction

Original Manuscript: January 4, 2002
Revised Manuscript: April 8, 2002
Published: January 20, 2003

Waldemar H. Lehn, "Bright superior mirages," Appl. Opt. 42, 390-393 (2003)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. B. Fraser, W. H. Mach, “Mirages,” Sci. Am. 234, 102–111 (1976). [CrossRef]
  2. “Kodachrome 25, 64, and 200 Professional Film,” Kodak Publication E-55 (Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y., 2001). The relevant data sheet is currently available on the Internet at http://www.kodak.com/global/en/professional/support/techPubs/e55/e55.shtml .
  3. W. A. Lyons, “Numerical simulation of Great Lakes conduction inversions,” in Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Great Lakes Research, State University College, Buffalo, N.Y., 1–3April1970, D. V. Anderson, J. S. Seddon, eds. (International Association for Great Lakes Research, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1970), pp. 369–387.
  4. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1986), Sec. 4.8.
  5. W. H. Lehn, W. Friesen, “Simulation of mirages,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1267–1273 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited