On the evening of 25 November 1998, a cirrus cloud revealing the pastel colors of the iridescence phenomenon was photographed and studied by a polarization lidar system at the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS). The diffraction of sunlight falling on relatively minute cloud particles, which display spatial gradients in size, is the cause of iridescence. According to the 14-year study of midlatitude cirrus clouds at FARS, cirrus rarely produce even poor iridescent patches, making this particularly long-lived and vivid occurrence unique. In this unusually high (13.2–14.4-km) and cold (−69.7 ° to −75.5°) tropopause-topped cirrus cloud, iridescence was noted from ~6.0° to ~13.5° from the Sun. On the basis of simple diffraction theory, this indicates the presence of particles of 2.5–5.5-μm effective diameter. The linear depolarization ratios of δ = 0.5 measured by the lidar verify that the cloud particles were nonspherical ice crystals. The demonstration that ice clouds can generate iridescence has led to the conclusion that iridescence is rarely seen in midlatitude cirrus clouds because populations of such small particles do not exist for long in the presence of the relatively high water-vapor supersaturations needed for ice-particle nucleation.
© 2003 Optical Society of America
(010.1290) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric optics
(010.2940) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Ice crystal phenomena
(010.3640) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Lidar
(290.1090) Scattering : Aerosol and cloud effects
Kenneth Sassen, "Cirrus cloud iridescence: a rare case study," Appl. Opt. 42, 486-491 (2003)