OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 42, Iss. 30 — Oct. 20, 2003
  • pp: 6199–6204

Liquid steel analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry in the vacuum ultraviolet

Laszlo Peter, Volker Sturm, and Reinhard Noll  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 42, Issue 30, pp. 6199-6204 (2003)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (114 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) with multiple pulse excitation has been applied for the multielemental analysis of liquid steel. The laser beam and the measuring radiation are guided inside a moveable lance to gain access to the melt surface from the top. Low-alloy steel grades were investigated with a focus on the light elements phosphorus, sulfur, and carbon by use of emission wavelengths in the vacuum ultraviolet. Calibration curves were determined for the elements carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, nickel, and chromium in steel melts of 100 kg. The estimated limits of detection for the light elements phosphorus, sulfur, and carbon are below 21 µg/g for direct analysis of liquid steel with LIBS. The results demonstrate the potential of the laser-based analysis to fulfill the requirements for a process integrated on-line analysis in the secondary metallurgy of steel works.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(300.0300) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy

Original Manuscript: January 20, 2003
Revised Manuscript: May 28, 2003
Published: October 20, 2003

Laszlo Peter, Volker Sturm, and Reinhard Noll, "Liquid steel analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry in the vacuum ultraviolet," Appl. Opt. 42, 6199-6204 (2003)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. Richter, H. Rzepczyk, D. Tembergen, “Prozessteuerung sekundärmetallurgischer Verfahren,” Stahl und Eisen 114, 110–113 (1994), in German.
  2. H. Richter, H. Rzepczyk, D. Tembergen, “Qualitätsbezogene Prozessteuerung in der Sekundärmetallurgie eines Oxygenstahlwerkes,” Stahl und Eisen 115, 83–87 (1995), in German.
  3. C. Carlhoff, “Laserinduzierte Emissionsspektroskopie für die Direktanalyse von flüssigem Stahl im Konverter,” Laser Optoelectron. 23, 50–52 (1991), in German.
  4. C. Aragon, J. Aguilera, J. Campos, “Determination of carbon content in molten steel using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 606–608 (1993). [CrossRef]
  5. R. Noll, V. Sturm, L. Peter, I. Whiteside, “Analysis using lasers,” in Proceedings of the 49th Chemists’ Conference, R. Jowitt, ed. (British Steel, Middlesbrough, U.K., 1997), pp. 22–27.
  6. J. Gruber, J. Heitz, H. Strasser, D. Bäuerle, N. Ramaseder, “Rapid in situ analysis of liquid steel by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 685–693 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, R. Noll, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel samples using multiple Q-switch Nd:YAG laser pulses,” J. Phys. D 28, 2181–2187 (1995). [CrossRef]
  8. R. Noll, R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, S. Lüngen, H.-J. von Wachtendonk, “Schnelle Multielement-Analyse in der Stahlschmelze mit laserinduzierter Emissionsspektrometrie,” Stahl und Eisen 117, 57–62 (1997), in German.
  9. V. Sturm, L. Peter, R. Noll, “Steel analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry in the vacuum ultraviolet,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 1275–1278 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Khater, J. Costello, E. Kennedy, “Optimization of the emission characteristics of laser-produced steel plasmas in the vacuum ultraviolet: significant improvements in carbon detection limits,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 970–984 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. R. Noll, V. Sturm, L. Peter, R. Hakala, J. Viirret, H. W. Gudenau, K. Mavrommatis, L. Ernenputsch, “Sensitivity-enhanced laser analysis (SELA) of steel melts for a fast multi-element online analysis during ladle processing in secondary metallurgy,” in EUR 19411—Analytical Techniques for Processes, Products and the Environment, Technical Steel Research Series (European Commission Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2001).
  12. V. N. Rai, F.-Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, “Study of laser-induced breakdown emission from liquid under double pulse excitation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2094–2101 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. National Standard of Germany, DIN 32 645: Nachweis-, Erfassungs- und Bestimmungsgrenze (Beuth Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1994).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited