The design and implementation of a phase-sensitive near-field scanning optical microscope incorporating both heterodyne interferometric detection and a phase feedback mechanism are described. Using this microscope we demonstrate a new method for measuring the effective index of the guided mode of a waveguide from the phase images. Two types of LiNbO3 waveguide, defined by titanium diffusion or annealed proton exchange, were studied. Both the profile and the effective index of the mode were measured experimentally. For titanium-diffused waveguides, both agree well with values determined from numerical simulation. In annealed proton-exchanged waveguides that contain periodically poled domains, we find evidence for backreflection from the boundaries between neighboring regions of opposite pole directions, which could result in transmission loss in this type of waveguide.
© 2003 Optical Society of America
(130.2790) Integrated optics : Guided waves
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(130.3730) Integrated optics : Lithium niobate
(180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy
(260.3160) Physical optics : Interference
Anthony L. Campillo and Julia W. P. Hsu, "Intensity and Phase Mapping of Guided Light in LiNbO3 Waveguides with an Interferometric Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope," Appl. Opt. 42, 7149-7156 (2003)