OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 43, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2004
  • pp: 97–103

Single-material inhomogeneous optical filters based on microstructural gradients in plasma-deposited silicon nitride

Richard Vernhes, Oleg Zabeida, Jolanta E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and Ludvik Martinu  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 1, pp. 97-103 (2004)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.43.000097


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (172 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Transparent hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (SiN x :H) coatings were prepared by dual-mode microwave-radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. By controlling the effects of plasma density and ion energy on the film growth, it was possible to modify the microstructure of the coatings and hence the refractive index n. Using this method, we were able to vary n from 1.6 to 2.0, at 550 nm, by adjusting the power levels of the radio-frequency and microwave components while keeping the gas composition (SiH4, N2) and pressure constant. An inhomogeneous bandpass filter with a controlled refractive-index depth profile was fabricated, and its optical performance was compared with that of its multilayer counterpart. Besides the attractive optical features of such single-material rugate filters, we found that the mechanical resistance of inhomogeneous films is superior to that of multilayer systems.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(310.0310) Thin films : Thin films
(310.1860) Thin films : Deposition and fabrication

History
Original Manuscript: March 14, 2003
Revised Manuscript: September 8, 2003
Published: January 1, 2004

Citation
Richard Vernhes, Oleg Zabeida, Jolanta E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and Ludvik Martinu, "Single-material inhomogeneous optical filters based on microstructural gradients in plasma-deposited silicon nitride," Appl. Opt. 43, 97-103 (2004)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-43-1-97


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. R. Jacobsson, “Light reflection from films of continuously varying refractive index,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), Vol. 5, pp. 247–286. [CrossRef]
  2. R. Jacobsson, “A review of the optical properties of inhomogeneous thin films,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 2–8 (1993). [CrossRef]
  3. W. E. Johnson, R. L. Crane, “Introduction to rugate filter technology,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 88–108 (1993). [CrossRef]
  4. B. Bovard, F. J. Van Milligen, M. J. Messerly, S. G. Saxe, H. A. Macleod, “Optical constants derivation for an inhomogeneous thin film from in situ transmission measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1803–1807 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. H. Southwell, R. L. Hall, “Rugate filter sidelobe suppression using quintic and rugated quintic matching layers,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2949–2951 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Larouche, A. Amassian, S. C. Gujrathi, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, “Multilayer and inhomogeneous optical filters fabricated by PECVD using titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.Mex., 2001), pp. 277–281.
  7. D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon-based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. M. F. Ouellette, R. V. Lang, K. L. Yan, R. W. Bertram, R. S. Owles, “Experimental studies of inhomogeneous coatings for optical applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1188–1192 (1991). [CrossRef]
  9. W. J. Gunning, R. L. Hall, F. J. Woodberry, W. H. Southwell, N. S. Gluck, “Codeposition of continuous composition rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2945–2948 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Martinu, D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. D. Poitras, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, A. Moussi, L. Martinu, “Properties of multilayer and graded index Si-based coatings deposited in dual-frequency plasma,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 179–188 (1993). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Poitras, S. Larouche, L. Martinu, “Design and plasma deposition of dispersion-corrected multiband rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5249–5255 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. P. Donovan, D. Van Vechten, A. D. F. Kahn, C. A. Carosella, G. K. Hubler, “Near infrared rugate filter fabrication by ion beam assisted deposition of Si(1-x)Nx films,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2940–2944 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Properties and applications of electron cyclotron plasma deposited SiOxNy films with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 484–488 (1995). [CrossRef]
  15. G. K. Hubler, P. R. Malmberg, T. P. Smith, “Refractive index profiles and range distributions of silicon implanted with high-energy nitrogen,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7147–7155 (1979). [CrossRef]
  16. B. F. Hanyaloglu, E. S. Aydil, “Low temperature plasma deposition of silicon nitride from silane and nitrogen plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2794–2803 (1998). [CrossRef]
  17. D. Poitras, P. Leroux, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, S. C. Gujrathi, L. Martinu, “Characterization of homogeneous and inhomogeneous Si-based optical coatings deposited in dual-frequency plasma,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2693–2699 (1996). [CrossRef]
  18. L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, A. Raveh, M. R. Wertheimer, “Critical ion energy and ion flux in the growth of films by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1360–1364 (1994). [CrossRef]
  19. O. Zabeida, A. Hallil, M. R. Wertheimer, L. Martinu, “Time-resolved measurements of ion energy distributions in dual-mode pulsed-microwave/radio frequency plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 635–642 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, O. M. Küttel, L. Martinu, M. R. Wertheimer, “Dual microwave-r.f. plasma deposition of functional coatings,” Thin Solid Films 193/194, 965–972 (1990). [CrossRef]
  21. M. R. Wertheimer, L. Martinu, M. Moisan, “Microwave and dual-frequency plasma processing,” in Plasma Processing of Polymers, R. d’Agostino, F. Fracassi, P. Favia, eds., Vol. 346 of Applied Sciences Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 101–127. [CrossRef]
  22. T.-R. Ji, J. Gerling, “A versatile microwave plasma applicator,” J. Microwave Power Electromagn. Energy 23, 3–10 (1988).
  23. D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 249–262 (1982). [CrossRef]
  24. W. C. Oliver, G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992). [CrossRef]
  25. P. Jedrzejowski, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, “Relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructure of nanocomposite TiN/SiN1.3 coatings prepared by low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 426, 150–159 (2003). [CrossRef]
  26. A. Amassian, S. Larouche, R. Vernhes, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, P. Desjardins, L. Martinu, “Analysis and control of optical film growth by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry,” in Proceedings of Opto-Canada, SPIE Regional Meeting on Optoelectronics, Photonics, and Imaging, SPIETD01, pp. 493–495 (2002).
  27. P. Jedrzejowski, J. Cizek, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Vlcek, L. Martinu, “Mechanical and optical properties of hard SiCN coatings prepared by PECVD,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).
  28. M.-A. Raymond, S. Larouche, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Tribological properties of PECVD optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.Mex., 2001), pp. 301–305.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited