OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 43, Iss. 10 — Apr. 1, 2004
  • pp: 2071–2078

Detection performance of a diffusive wave phased array

Stephen P. Morgan  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 10, pp. 2071-2078 (2004)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (171 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Diffusive wave phased arrays have been demonstrated to be a sensitive method of detecting inhomogeneities embedded in heavily scattering media. However, the increase in sensitivity is coupled with an increase in noise, so that the optimum performance may not be obtained when the sources are modulated in antiphase. The performance of a range of configurations in the presence of Gaussian noise is investigated by using probabilistic detection theory. A model of diffusive wave propagation through scattering media is used to demonstrate that the phase performance can be improved by controlling the relative phase difference between the two sources. However, the best performance is obtained by using the amplitude response of a single source system. The major benefit of a phased array system is therefore the rejection of common systematic noise.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics and biotechnology
(170.3890) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics instrumentation
(170.5280) Medical optics and biotechnology : Photon migration

Original Manuscript: July 2, 2003
Revised Manuscript: December 2, 2003
Published: April 1, 2004

Stephen P. Morgan, "Detection performance of a diffusive wave phased array," Appl. Opt. 43, 2071-2078 (2004)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. A. Franchescini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Matulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, M. Kaschke, “Frequency domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94, 6468–6473 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. M. A. Franchescini, V. Toronov, M. E. Filiaci, E. Gratton, S. Fantini, “On-line optical imaging of the human brain with 160-ms temporal resolution,” Opt. Express6, 49–57 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org . [CrossRef]
  3. A. Knuttel, J. M. Schmitt, J. R. Knutson, “Spatial localization of absorbing bodies by interfering diffusive photon density waves,” Appl. Opt. 32, 381–389 (1993). [CrossRef]
  4. B. Chance, K. Kang, L. He, J. Weng, E. Sevick, “Highly sensitive object location in tissue models with linear in-phase and anti-phase multi-element optical arrays in one and two dimensions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 90, 3423–3427 (1993). [CrossRef]
  5. S. P. Morgan, M. G. Somekh, K. I. Hopcraft, “Probabilistic method for phased array detection in scattering media,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1618–1626 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. S. P. Morgan, K. Y. Yong, “Controlling the phase response of a diffusive wave phased array system,” Opt. Express 7, 540–546 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. G. Erickson, J. S. Reynolds, K. J. Webb, “Comparison of sensitivity for single-source and dual-interfering-source configurations in optical diffusion imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 3083–3092 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. D. G. Papaioannou, G. W. Hooft, S. B. Colak, J. T. Oostveen, “Detection limit in localizing objects hidden in a turbid medium using an optically scanned phased array,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 305–310 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Chen, C. Mu, X. Intes, B. Chance, “Signal to noise analysis for detection of small absorbing heterogeneity in turbid media with single-source and dual-interfering-source,” Opt. Express 9, 212–224 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. X. Intes, Y. Chen, X. D. Li, B. Chance, “Detection limit enhancement of fluorescent heterogeneities in turbid media by dual-interfering excitation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3999–4007 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. A. Boas, M. A. O’Leary, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Detection and characterization of optical inhomogeneities with diffuse photon density waves: a signal to noise analysis,” Appl. Opt. 36, 75–92 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. P. Morgan, M. C. Pitter, M. G. Somekh, K. Y. Yong, “Conventional optics approach to diffraction of diffuse photon density waves,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue III, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3597, 5–14 (1999). [CrossRef]
  13. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).
  14. Q. Zhang, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Gaudett, L. Wang, A. Li, D. A. Boas, “Experimental comparison of using continuous-wave and frequency-domain diffuse optical imaging systems to detect heterogeneities,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 219–238 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. S. P. Morgan, K. Y. Yong, “Elimination of amplitude-phase crosstalk in frequency domain near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 72, 1982–1987 (2001). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited