OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 43, Iss. 10 — Apr. 1, 2004
  • pp: 2141–2145

Optical-gradient antireflective coatings for 157-nm optical lithography applications

Hsuen-Li Chen, Wonder Fan, Tzyy-Jyann Wang, Fu-Hsiung Ko, Run-Sheng Zhai, Chien-Kui Hsu, and Tung-Jung Chuang  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 10, pp. 2141-2145 (2004)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (196 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate an optical-gradient bottom antireflective coating (BARC) film, which can be easily prepared by treating a silicon nitride film with oxygen plasma. The oxygen composition is gradually decreased inside the silicon nitride film. The optical constants of the silicon nitride film are also changed gradually. A reflectance of less than 1% for various highly reflective substrates with high thickness-controlled tolerance has been achieved. The optical-gradient film is also shown to have high thermal stability during the postexposure bake procedure. Results indicate that the optical-gradient-type BARC is suitable in both ArF and F2 excimer lasers for sub-70-nm lithography applications.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography
(310.1210) Thin films : Antireflection coatings
(310.1860) Thin films : Deposition and fabrication
(310.3840) Thin films : Materials and process characterization

Original Manuscript: June 27, 2003
Revised Manuscript: November 11, 2003
Published: April 1, 2004

Hsuen-Li Chen, Wonder Fan, Tzyy-Jyann Wang, Fu-Hsiung Ko, Run-Sheng Zhai, Chien-Kui Hsu, and Tung-Jung Chuang, "Optical-gradient antireflective coatings for 157-nm optical lithography applications," Appl. Opt. 43, 2141-2145 (2004)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. Semiconductor Industry AssociationInternational Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors2001 ed. (Semiconductor for Industry Association, San Jose, Calif., 2001), http://public.itrs.net/Files/2001ITRS .
  2. R. A. Cirelli, G. R. Weber, A. Kornblit, R. M. Baker, F. P. Klemens, J. Demarco, “A multi-layer inorganic antireflective system for use in 248 nm deep ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4229–4233 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. L. A. Wang, H. L. Chen, “Multi-layer hexamethyldisiloxane film as bottom antireflective coating for ArF lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2772–2775 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. T. P. Ong, B. Roman, “CVD SiNx Anti-reflective coating for sub-0.5 micrometer lithography,” in 1995 IEEE Symposium on VLSI Technology: Digest of Technical Papers (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), p. 73. [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Trouiller, N. Buffet, T. Mourier, Y. Gobil, P. Schiavone, Y. Quere, “Inorganic bottom ARC SiOxNy for interconnection levels on 0.18-μm technology,” in Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XV, W. Conley, ed., Proc. SPIE3333, 324–333 (1998).
  6. C. H. Lin, L. A. Wang, “Feasibility of utilizing hexamethyldisiloxane film as a bottom antireflective coating for 157 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2357–2361 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Sato, Y. Onishi, Y. Nakano, S. Hayase, “Spun-on carbon antireflective layer with etch resistance for deep and vacuum ultraviolet lithography processes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2385–2388 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. L. Ward, The Optical Constants of Bulk Materials and Films (Institute of Physics, Bristol, 1994), Chap. 8.
  9. Y. Kawai, A. Tanaka, T. Matsuda, “The effect of an organic base in chemically amplified resist on patterning characteristics using KrF lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 7023–7027 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. T. C. Paulick, “Inversion of normal-incidence (R, T) measurements to obtain n + ik for thin films,” Appl. Opt. 25, 562 (1986). [CrossRef]
  11. A. R. Forouhi, I. Bloomer, “Optical properties of crystalline semiconductors and dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1865–1874 (1988). [CrossRef]
  12. V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, “Determination of optical properties of thin films and surfaces in 157-nm lithography,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Lithography XIV, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE3998, 480–490 (2000). [CrossRef]
  13. H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Macmillan, New York, 1986), Chap. 2. [CrossRef]
  14. J. Chastain, R. C. King, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Physical Electronics, Perkin-Elmer, Eden Praire, Minn., 1995).
  15. G. Latha, N. Rajendran, S. Rajeswari, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 6, 743–748 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited