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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 43, Iss. 11 — Apr. 10, 2004
  • pp: 2325–2331

Volume relaxation in polymers and its effect on waveguide applications

Zhiyi Zhang, Gaozhi Xiao, and Chander P. Grover  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 11, pp. 2325-2331 (2004)

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Volume relaxation in polymers and the effect intrinsic to glassy polymers can significantly affect their refractive index over time. Its β rate has been found to be related only to relaxation temperature T and the glass transition temperature of the polymer T g and not to the polymeric chemical structure. Universal values of β have been obtained for polymers and were used to predict the minimum index change related to volume in polymers. The index change is in the range from 7.86 × 10-5 to 5.26 × 10-4 when the T g - T value of polymers is between 90 and 350 °C. These volume-relaxation-induced changes can cause serious deterioration or even failure in corresponding polymer waveguide devices, such as arrayed waveguide gratings and variable optical attenuators, when the T g of a polymer is not sufficiently high. A minimum requirement is therefore suggested for the T g of polymers used to fabricate waveguide devices.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(130.3130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics materials
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers
(230.7390) Optical devices : Waveguides, planar
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits

Original Manuscript: July 29, 2003
Revised Manuscript: November 25, 2003
Published: April 10, 2004

Zhiyi Zhang, Gaozhi Xiao, and Chander P. Grover, "Volume relaxation in polymers and its effect on waveguide applications," Appl. Opt. 43, 2325-2331 (2004)

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