OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 43, Iss. 11 — Apr. 10, 2004
  • pp: 2325–2331

Volume relaxation in polymers and its effect on waveguide applications

Zhiyi Zhang, Gaozhi Xiao, and Chander P. Grover  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 11, pp. 2325-2331 (2004)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.43.002325


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (132 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Volume relaxation in polymers and the effect intrinsic to glassy polymers can significantly affect their refractive index over time. Its β rate has been found to be related only to relaxation temperature T and the glass transition temperature of the polymer T g and not to the polymeric chemical structure. Universal values of β have been obtained for polymers and were used to predict the minimum index change related to volume in polymers. The index change is in the range from 7.86 × 10-5 to 5.26 × 10-4 when the T g - T value of polymers is between 90 and 350 °C. These volume-relaxation-induced changes can cause serious deterioration or even failure in corresponding polymer waveguide devices, such as arrayed waveguide gratings and variable optical attenuators, when the T g of a polymer is not sufficiently high. A minimum requirement is therefore suggested for the T g of polymers used to fabricate waveguide devices.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(130.3130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics materials
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers
(230.7390) Optical devices : Waveguides, planar
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits

History
Original Manuscript: July 29, 2003
Revised Manuscript: November 25, 2003
Published: April 10, 2004

Citation
Zhiyi Zhang, Gaozhi Xiao, and Chander P. Grover, "Volume relaxation in polymers and its effect on waveguide applications," Appl. Opt. 43, 2325-2331 (2004)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-43-11-2325


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. T. Miya, “Silica-based planar lightwave circuits: passive and thermally active devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 38–45 (2000). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Zhou, “Low-loss polymeric materials for passive waveguide components in fiber optical telecommunication,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1631–1643 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, N. Ooba, T. Kurihara, “Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with wide tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1547–1548 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. O. Noh, M.-S. Yang, Y. H. Won, W.-Y. Hwang, “PLC-type variable optical attenuator operated at low electrical power,” Electron. Lett. 36, 2032–2033 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Toyoda, N. Ooba, Y. Katoh, T. Kurihara, T. Maruno, “Low crosstalk and low loss 2 × 2 thermo-optic digital optical switch using silicone resin waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1803–1804 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Zhang, I. Liu, G. Xiao, C. P. Grover, “Novel approach to reducing stress-caused birefringence in polymers,” J. Mater. Sci. 39, 1415–1417 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, J. T. Kenney, E. S. Binkley, “Large-scale integration of electro-optic polymer waveguides,” in Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics: Technology and Applications, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992).
  8. H. S. Lackritz, T. C. Kowalczyk, Y. C. Lee, D. A. G. Deacon, “Optoelectronic and photonic devices formed of materials which inhibit degradation and failure,” U.S. Patent6,236,774 (22March2001).
  9. J. M. Hutchinson, “Physical aging of polymers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 20, 703–760 (1995). [CrossRef]
  10. C. G. Robertson, G. L. Wilkes, “Refractive index: a probe for monitoring volume relaxation during physical aging of glassy polymers,” Polymer 39, 2129–2133 (1998). [CrossRef]
  11. R. A. Orwell, “Densities, coefficients of thermal expansion, and compressibilities of amorphous polymers,” in Physical Properties of Polymers Handbook, J. E. Mark, ed. (American Institute of Physics, Woodbury, N.Y., 1996).
  12. G. T. Murray, ed., Handbook of Materials Selection for Engineering Applications, Vol. 113 of the Mechanical Engineering Series (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1997).
  13. R. S. Moshrefzadeh, M. D. Radcliffe, T. C. Lee, S. K. Mohapatra, “Temperature dependence of index of refraction of polymer waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 420–425 (1992). [CrossRef]
  14. V. N. Morozov, H. Fan, L. Yang, “Variable optical attenuator with thermo-optic control,” U.S. Patent6,208,798 (27March2001).
  15. S. Matsuoka, Relaxation Phenomena in Polymers (Hanser Gardner, New York, 1992).
  16. J. Bartos, J. Müller, J. H. Wendorff, “Physical aging of isotropic and anisotropic polycarbonate,” Polymer 31, 1678–1684 (1990). [CrossRef]
  17. R. Greiner, F. R. Schwarzl, “Thermal contraction and volume relaxation of amorphous polymers,” Rheol. Acta 23, 378–395 (1984). [CrossRef]
  18. L. C. E. Struik, “Volume relaxation and secondary transitions in amorphous polymers,” Polymer 28, 1869–1875 (1987). [CrossRef]
  19. M. K. Smit, C. Van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 236–250 (1996).
  20. M. Lenzi, S. Tebaldini, D. di Mola, S. Brunazzi, L. Cibinetto, “Power control in the photonic domain based on integrated arrays of optical variable attenuators in glass-on-silicon technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1289–1297 (1999). [CrossRef]
  21. X. Orignac, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, “Modeling and properties of an ion-exchanged optical variable attenuator,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, G. C. Righini, S. I. Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 220–232 (1999). [CrossRef]
  22. Y. P. Handa, J. Roovers, P. Moulinié, “Gas transport properties of substituted PEEKs,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 35, 2355–23262 (1997). [CrossRef]
  23. D. S. Pope, G. K. Fleming, W. J. Koros, “Effect of various exposure histories on sorption and dilation in a family of polycarbonates,” Macromolecules 23, 2988–2994 (1990). [CrossRef]
  24. S. S. Jordan, W. J. Koros, “A free volume distribution model of gas sorption and dilation in glassy polymers,” Macromolecules 28, 2228–2235 (1995). [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, S. Sumida, “Athermal silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer,” Electron Lett. 33, 1945–1947 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4 Fig. 5
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited