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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 43, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 2004
  • pp: 2456–2461

Experimental techniques using optically enabled ring oscillators

Joshua D. Schwartz, Michael B. Venditti, and David V. Plant  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 12, pp. 2456-2461 (2004)

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We present a method for characterizing transceiver performance in parallel optical data links. By establishing a bidirectional link between two optically enabled chips, the conditions for a ring oscillator are made possible. We propose this technique as a means of measuring the sensitivity of transceiver latency to controlled variables such as temperature, optical output power, supply voltage, and device misalignment. This method is noninvasive and independent of the packaging, circuit topology, and optical medium used. The technique is demonstrated experimentally, and results are compared with a simulation.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.1240) Detectors : Arrays
(200.0200) Optics in computing : Optics in computing
(200.2610) Optics in computing : Free-space digital optics
(200.4650) Optics in computing : Optical interconnects

Original Manuscript: July 30, 2003
Revised Manuscript: February 3, 2004
Published: April 20, 2004

Joshua D. Schwartz, Michael B. Venditti, and David V. Plant, "Experimental techniques using optically enabled ring oscillators," Appl. Opt. 43, 2456-2461 (2004)

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  1. T. K. Woodward, R. A. Novotny, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. Hui, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, R. E. Leibenguth, “Ring oscillators with monolithically integrated-optical readout based on GaAs-AlGaAs FET-SEED technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 52–54 (1995). [CrossRef]
  2. G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, H. Thienpont, D. A. B. Miller, “Optical pump-probe measurements of the latency of silicon CMOS optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1214–1216 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, B. E. Nelson, N. C. Helman, D. A. B. Miller, “Performance enhancement of an optical interconnect using short pulses from a modelocked diode laser,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Long Beach, California, 19–24 May 2002.
  4. D. Agarwal, D. A. B. Miller, “Latency in short pulse based optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Laser and Electro-Optics Society, San Diego, Calif., 2001), pp. 812–813.
  5. E. Laprise, D. V. Plant, “Method and Apparatus for Opto-electronic Built-in Tests,” U.S. patent application #20020025100, filed 15June2001 (pending).
  6. M. B. Venditti, J. D. Schwartz, D. V. Plant, “Skew and latency reduction for synchronous OE-VLSI receiver applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).
  7. D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. A. A. Abidi, “How phase noise appears in oscillators,” in Analog Circuit Design—RF Analog-to-Digital Converters: Sensor and Actuator Interfaces; Low Noise Oscillators; PLLs and Synthesizers, R. J. van de Plassche, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass., 1997), pp. 428–447.

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