OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 43, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 2004
  • pp: 2462–2483

Simulation of sea surface wave influence on small target detection with airborne laser depth sounding

H. Michael Tulldahl and K. Ove Steinvall  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 12, pp. 2462-2483 (2004)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.43.002462


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (768 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A theoretical model for simulation of airborne depth-sounding lidar is presented with the purpose of analyzing the influence from water surface waves on the ability to detect 1-m3 targets placed on the sea bottom. Although water clarity is the main limitation, sea surface waves can significantly affect the detectability. The detection probability for a target at a 9-m depth can be above 90% at 1-m/s wind and below 80% at 6-m/s wind for the same water clarity. The simulation model contains both numerical and analytical components. Simulated data are compared with measured data and give realistic results for bottom depths between 3 and 10 m.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.3310) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Laser beam transmission
(010.3640) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Lidar
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(120.0280) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Remote sensing and sensors
(290.7050) Scattering : Turbid media

History
Original Manuscript: June 7, 2003
Revised Manuscript: December 18, 2003
Published: April 20, 2004

Citation
H. Michael Tulldahl and K. Ove Steinvall, "Simulation of sea surface wave influence on small target detection with airborne laser depth sounding," Appl. Opt. 43, 2462-2483 (2004)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-43-12-2462


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. J. L. Irish, W. J. Lillycrop, “Scanning laser mapping of the coastal zone: the SHOALS system,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sensing 54, 123–129 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. M. F. Penny, R. H. Abbot, D. M. Phillips, B. Billard, D. Rees, D. W. Faulkner, D. G. Cartwright, B. Woodcock, G. J. Perry, P. J. Wilsen, T. R. Adams, J. Richards, “Airborne laser hydrography in Australia,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2046–2058 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. O. Steinvall, K. R. Koppari, U. C. M. Karlsson, “Airborne laser depth sounding: system aspects and performance,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 392–412 (1994). [CrossRef]
  4. K. O. Steinvall, K. R. Koppari, U. Lejdebrink, J. Winell, M. Nilsson, R. Ellsén, E. Gjellan, “Depth-sounding lidar: performance and models,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE2748, 18–38 (1996). [CrossRef]
  5. H. M. Tulldahl, K. O. Steinvall, “Analytical waveform generation from small objects in lidar bathymetry,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1021–1039 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).
  7. J. W. McLean, J. D. Freeman, R. E. Walker, “Beam spread function with time dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4701–4711 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Ishimaru, S. Jaruwatanadilok, Y. Kuga, “Polarized pulse waves in random discrete scatterers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5495–5502 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. G. W. Kattawar, C. N. Adams, “Errors in radiance calculations induced by using scalar rather than Stokes vector theory in a realistic atmosphere-ocean system,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 2–12 (1990). [CrossRef]
  10. G. M. Krekov, M. M. Krekova, V. S. Shamanaev, “Laser sensing of a subsurface oceanic layer. II. Polarization characteristics of signals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1596–1601 (1998). [CrossRef]
  11. A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001). [CrossRef]
  12. K. O. Steinvall, K. R. Koppari, U. C. M. Karlsson, “Experimental evaluation of an airborne depth-sounding lidar,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1307–1321 (1993). [CrossRef]
  13. G. C. Guenther, R. W. L. Thomas, “Prediction and correction of propagation-induced depth measurement biases plus signal attenuation and beam spreading for airborne laser hydrography,” NOAA Tech. Rep. NOS 106, Charting and Geodetic Services Series CGS 2 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, Md., 1984).
  14. G. C. Guenther, “Airborne laser hydrography, system design and performance factors,” NOAA Professional Paper Ser. NOS 1 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, Md., 1985).
  15. G. M. Krekov, M. M. Krekova, V. S. Shamanaev, “Laser sensing of a subsurface oceanic layer. I. Effect of the atmosphere and wind-driven sea waves,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1589–1595 (1998). [CrossRef]
  16. A. G. Luchinin, “Influence of wind waves on the characteristics of the light field backscattered by the bottom and the intervening water,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 15, 531–534 (1979).
  17. J. W. McLean, “Modeling of ocean wave effects for lidar remote sensing,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 480–491 (1990). [CrossRef]
  18. J. W. McLean, J. D. Freeman, “Effects of ocean waves on airborne lidar imaging,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3261–3269 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. V. J. Feigels, “Lidars for oceanological research: criteria for comparison, main limitations, perspectives,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 473–484 (1992). [CrossRef]
  20. R. E. Walker, Marine Light Field Statistics (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1994).
  21. C.-C. Liu, K. L. Carder, R. L. Miller, J. E. Ivey, “Fast and accurate model of underwater scalar irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4962–4974 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. Cox, W. Munk, Slopes of the Sea Surface Deduced from Photographs of Sun Glitter (University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif., 1956).
  23. P. Koepke, “Effective reflectance of oceanic whitecaps,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1816–1824 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. F. Lutomirski, A. P. Ciervo, G. J. Hall, “Moments of multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7125–7136 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. I. L. Katsev, E. P. Zege, A. S. Prikhach, I. N. Polonsky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and oceanic sounding and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997). [CrossRef]
  26. L. S. Dolin, O. V. Kopelevich, I. M. Levin, V. I. Feigels, “Few-parameter models of light fields in the sea and integral characteristics of the scattering phase function of water,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 24, 893–896 (1988).
  27. L. B. Stotts, “Closed form expression for optical pulse broadening in multiple-scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 17, 504–505 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. C. van de Hulst, G. W. Kattawar, “Exact spread function for a pulsed collimated beam in a medium with small-angle scattering,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5820–5829 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1994). [CrossRef]
  30. A. B. Fraser, R. E. Walker, F. C. Jurgens, “Spatial and temporal correlation of underwater sunlight fluctuations in the sea,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. OE-5, 195–198 (1980). [CrossRef]
  31. J. R. V. Zaneveld, E. Boss, A. Barnard, “Influence of surface waves on measured and modeled irradiance profiles,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1442–1449 (2001). [CrossRef]
  32. R. F. Lutomirski, “An analytic model for optical beam propagation through the marine boundary layer,” in Ocean Optics V, M. B. White, ed., Proc. SPIE160, 110–122 (1978). [CrossRef]
  33. L. R. Thebaud, S. J. Gayer, “Calculation of lidar beam spread in stratified media,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE489, 236–246 (1984). [CrossRef]
  34. R. E. Walker, J. W. McLean, “Lidar equations for turbid media with pulse stretching,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2384–2397 (1999). [CrossRef]
  35. H. M. Tulldahl, B. Knuthammar, K. O. Steinvall, “Shoal detection in laser depth sounding,” Ocean Optics XIV Conference, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November 1998, Ocean Optics XIV CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1998).
  36. H. M. Tulldahl, M. Andersson, K. O. Steinvall, “Experimental results of small target detection in airborne laser depth sounding,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV Conference, Monaco, France, 16–20 October 2000, available from the Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C.
  37. G. C. Guenther, T. J. Eisler, J. L. Riley, S. W. Perez, “Obstruction detection and data decimation for airborne laser hydrography,” in Proceedings of the Canadian Hydrographic Conference (Canadian Hydrographic Service, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1996).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited