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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 43, Iss. 14 — May. 10, 2004
  • pp: 2978–2985

Deposition and characterization of silica-based films by helicon-activated reactive evaporation applied to optical waveguide fabrication

Douglas A. P. Bulla, Wei-Tang Li, Christine Charles, Rod Boswell, Adrian Ankiewicz, and John Love  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 14, pp. 2978-2985 (2004)

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Planar silicon dioxide optical waveguides were deposited by use of a plasma-activated reactive evaporation system, at a low deposition temperature and with reduced hydrogen contamination, on thermally oxidized silicon wafers. The deposited films show a refractive-index inhomogeneity of less than 0.1%, a thickness nonuniformity of less than 5%, and a material birefringence of approximately 5 × 10-4. Rib-type channel waveguides were formed on the deposited films by means of hydrofluoric acid etching. The transmission loss of the rib waveguides is determined to be as low as 0.3 dB/cm at a wavelength of 1310 nm for TE polarization, after subtraction of the calculated leakage and scattering losses. Owing to the presence of the OH vibrational overtone band, an additional loss peak of 1 dB/cm is found near the 1385-nm wavelength. The experimental results of transmission loss at wavelengths of 1310 and 1550 nm are compared with analytic expressions for interface scattering and leakage loss.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.2790) Integrated optics : Guided waves
(130.3130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics materials
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(160.6030) Materials : Silica
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(290.5880) Scattering : Scattering, rough surfaces
(300.6300) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, Fourier transforms
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties

Original Manuscript: August 17, 2003
Revised Manuscript: December 23, 2003
Published: May 10, 2004

Douglas A. P. Bulla, Wei-Tang Li, Christine Charles, Rod Boswell, Adrian Ankiewicz, and John Love, "Deposition and characterization of silica-based films by helicon-activated reactive evaporation applied to optical waveguide fabrication," Appl. Opt. 43, 2978-2985 (2004)

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