Buried channel waveguides were fabricated in Er<sup>3+</sup>-Yb<sup>3+</sup> codoped phosphate glasses with use of the thermal two-step ion-exchange method. The K<sup>+</sup>-Na<sup>+</sup> ion-exchange process was first carried out in pure KNO<sub>3</sub> molten bath, and then field-assisted annealing (FAA) was used to make the buried waveguides. The fluorescence properties of bulk glasses and channel waveguides were characterized, and the waveguide properties were studied. The formation mechanism of buried waveguides was analyzed, and the improved gain characteristics of the waveguide amplifiers with use of different FAA temperatures were measured. The maximum net gain of the waveguide amplifiers at 1.534-μm wavelength was measured to be ~3.4 ± 0.1 dB/cm with 120-mW pump power at 975-nm wavelength.
© 2004 Optical Society of America
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials
(230.7380) Optical devices : Waveguides, channeled
(250.4480) Optoelectronics : Optical amplifiers
Ke Liu and Edwin Y. B. Pun, "K+-Na+ Ion-Exchanged Waveguides in Er3+-Yb3+ Codoped Phosphate Glasses Using Field-Assisted Annealing," Appl. Opt. 43, 3179-3184 (2004)