OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 43, Iss. 19 — Jul. 1, 2004
  • pp: 3772–3796

Profiled bar transmission gratings: soft-x-ray calibration of new Kirchoff solutions

Michael C. Hettrick, Michael E. Cuneo, John L. Porter, Larry E. Ruggles, Walter W. Simpson, Mark F. Vargas, and David F. Wenger  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 19, pp. 3772-3796 (2004)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (5013 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A new analytical model, derived rigorously from scalar diffraction theory, accurately fits soft-x-ray measurements of symmetrical profile gold transmission gratings in all diffracted orders. The calibration system selects numerous photon energies by use of a high-resolution grazing-incidence monochromator and a dc e-beam source. Fine-period free-standing gratings exhibit limited performance and require such testing to determine parameters of and select acceptable gratings for use in time-resolved (0.25 ns) spectrographs of known radiometric response. Unfolded spectra yield a Z-pinch plasma peak kT ∼250 eV, total radiated energy ∼900 kJ, and a pinch-driven gold-wall hohlraum Planckian kT ∼86 eV.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory
(300.6560) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, x-ray

Original Manuscript: September 25, 2003
Revised Manuscript: March 30, 2004
Published: July 1, 2004

Michael C. Hettrick, Michael E. Cuneo, John L. Porter, Larry E. Ruggles, Walter W. Simpson, Mark F. Vargas, and David F. Wenger, "Profiled bar transmission gratings: soft-x-ray calibration of new Kirchoff solutions," Appl. Opt. 43, 3772-3796 (2004)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. W. Schnopper, L. P. Van Speybroek, J. P. Delvaille, A. Epstein, E. Kallne, R. Z. Bachrach, J. H. Dijkstra, L. Lantward, “Diffraction grating transmission efficiencies for XUV and soft-x-rays,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1088–1091 (1977). [PubMed]
  2. K. Eidmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, G. D. Tsakiris, “Characterization of pinhole transmission gratings,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 259–273 (1990). [CrossRef]
  3. L. E. Ruggles, M. E. Cuneo, J. L. Porter, D. F. Wenger, W. W. Simpson, “Measurement of the efficiency of gold transmission gratings in 100–5000 eV photon energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1–5 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. H. Brauninger, P. Predehl, K. P. Beuermann, “Transmission grating efficiencies for wavelengths between 5.4 A and 44.8 A,” Appl. Opt. 18, 368–373 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. A. Flanagan, T. H. Markert, J. E. Davis, M. L. Shattenburg, R. L. Blake, F. Scholze, P. Bulicke, R. Fliegauf, S. Kraft, G. Ulm, E. M. Gullikson, “Modeling the Chandra high energy transmission gratings below 2 keV,” Proc. SPIE 414, 559–572 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. Austin Instruments, Inc., 10 Temple Street, Reading, Mass. 01867-2830, www.austinst.com .
  7. Hettrick Scientific, 1-39-59 Tama-cho, Fuchu-shi Tokyo 183-0002 Japan, hettrickscientific@yahoo.com, mhettrick@hotmail.com.
  8. M. C. Hettrick, “Surface normal rotation: a new technique for grazing-incidence monochromators,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7174–7178 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. C. Hettrick, “Grating monochromators and spectrometers based on surface normal rotation,” U.S. patent5,274,435 (28December1993).
  10. M. C. Hettrick, “Optical design and experimental development of grazing incidence fixed slit spectrometers for high resolution plasma diagnostics,” Ph.D. dissertation (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Nagoya University, Japan, 1996).
  11. LeBow Co., 5960 Mandarin Avenue, Goleta, Calif. 93117, www.lebowcompany.com .
  12. Roper Scientific, 3660 Quakerbridge Road, Trenton, N.J. 08619, www.roperscientific.com .
  13. M. L. Shattenburg, E. H. Anderson, H. I. Smith, “X-ray/VUV transmission gratings for astrophysical and laboratory applications,” Phys. Scr. 41, 13–20 (1990). [CrossRef]
  14. Heidenhain GmbH, Traunreut Germany.
  15. B. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photo-absorption, scattering and reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982); on-line version at www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/ . [CrossRef]
  16. E. E. Scime, E. H. Anderson, D. J. McComas, M. L. Schattenburg, “Extreme-ultraviolet polarization and filtering with gold transmission gratings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 648–654 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Sailaja, P. A. Naik, V. Arora, P. D. Gupta, “Occurrence of half-integral diffraction orders in XUV-soft x-ray spectra using a free-standing transmission grating,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 8, 231–239 (2000).
  18. M. K. Matzen, “Z-pinches as intense x-ray sources for high-energy density physics applications,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1519–1527 (1997). [CrossRef]
  19. M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. A. Chandler, D. L. Fehl, T. L. Gilliland, D. L. Hanson, J. S. McGurn, P. G. Reynolds, L. E. Ruggles, H. Seamen, R. B. Spielman, K. W. Struve, W. A. Styger, W. W. Simpson, J. A. Torres, D. A. Wenger, “Development and characterization of a Z-pinch-driven hohlraum high-yield inertial confinement fusion target concept,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2257–2267 (2001). [CrossRef]
  20. M. E. Cuneo, R. A. Vesey, J. L. Porter, G. R. Bennett, D. L. Hanson, L. E. Ruggles, W. W. Simpson, G. C. Idzorek, W. A. Stygar, J. H. Hammer, J. J. Seamen, J. A. Torres, J. S. McGurn, R. M. Green, “Double Z-pinch hohlraum drive with excellent temperature balance for symmetric inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004, 1–4 (2002). [CrossRef]
  21. International Radiation Detectors Inc., 2527 West 237th Street, Unit C, Torrance Calif. 90505-5243, www.ird-inc.com .
  22. J. F. Seely, C. N. Boyer, G. E. Holland, J. L. Weaver, “X-ray absolute calibration of the time response of a silicon photodiode,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5209–5217 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. L. Weaver, G. Holland, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, V. Serlin, A. V. Deniz, M. Klapisch, “The determination of absolutely calibrated spectra from laser produced plasmas using a transmission grating spectrometer at the Nike laser facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 108–118 (2001). [CrossRef]
  24. K. C. Gendreau, M. D. Audley, K. A. Arnaud, K. R. Boyce, R. Fujimoto, Y. Ishisaki, R. L. Kelley, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E/XRS calibration program and results,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 137–147 (1999). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited