Fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particles glued to the end of an atomic force microscope tip have been used to perform scanning near-field optical measurements on nanostructured samples. The fixation procedure of the fluorescent fragment at the end of the tip is described in detail. The procedure consists of depositing a thin adhesive layer on the tip. Then a tip approach is performed on a fragment that remains stuck near the tip extremity. To displace the particle and position it at the very end of the tip, a nanomanipulation is achieved by use of a second tip mounted on piezoelectric scanners. Afterward, the particle size is reduced by focused ion beam milling. These particles exhibit a strong green luminescence where excited in the near infrared by an upconversion mechanism. Images obtained near a metallic edge show a lateral resolution in the 180–200-nm range. Images we obtained by measuring the light scattered by 250-nm holes show a resolution well below 100 nm. This phenomenon can be explained by a local excitation of the particle and by the nonlinear nature of the excitation.
© 2004 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: January 23, 2004
Revised Manuscript: April 8, 2004
Published: July 1, 2004
Lionel Aigouy, Yannick De Wilde, Michel Mortier, Jacques Giérak, and Eric Bourhis, "Fabrication and characterization of fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass-particle-based tips for near-field optical imaging applications," Appl. Opt. 43, 3829-3837 (2004)