OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 43, Iss. 22 — Aug. 1, 2004
  • pp: 4303–4310

Artificial apposition compound eye fabricated by micro-optics technology

Jacques Duparré, Peter Dannberg, Peter Schreiber, Andreas Bräuer, and Andreas Tünnermann  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 22, pp. 4303-4310 (2004)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1029 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



By exploring micro-optical design principles and technology, we have developed an artificial apposition compound eye. The overall thickness of the imaging system is only 320 μm, the diagonal field of view is 21°, and the f-number is 2.6. The monolithic device consists of an UV-replicated microlens array upon a thin silica substrate with a pinhole array in a metal layer on the back side. The pitch of the pinholes differs from that of the lens array to provide individual viewing angle for each channel. Theoretical limitations of resolution and sensitivity are discussed as well as fabrication issues and compared with experimental results. A method to generate nontransparent walls between optical channels to prevent cross talk is proposed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
(150.0150) Machine vision : Machine vision
(350.3950) Other areas of optics : Micro-optics

Original Manuscript: December 23, 2003
Revised Manuscript: May 3, 2004
Published: August 1, 2004

Jacques Duparré, Peter Dannberg, Peter Schreiber, Andreas Bräuer, and Andreas Tünnermann, "Artificial apposition compound eye fabricated by micro-optics technology," Appl. Opt. 43, 4303-4310 (2004)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. Völkel, M. Eisner, K. J. Weible, “Miniaturized imaging systems,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 461–472 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. R. Völkel, M. Eisner, K. J. Weible, “Miniaturized imaging systems,” presented at the Micro- and Nanoengineering International Conference, Lugano, Switzerland, 16–19 September 2002.
  3. G. A. Horridge, “The compound eye of insects,” Sci. Am. 237, 108–120 (1977). [CrossRef]
  4. A. W. Snyder, “Acuity of compound eyes: physical limitations and design,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 116, 161–182 (1977). [CrossRef]
  5. K. Kirschfeld, “The absolute sensitivity of lens and compound eyes,” Z. Naturforsch. 29, 592–596 (1974).
  6. R. Wehner, “Spatial vision in arthropods,” in Comparative Physiology and Evolution of Vision in Invertebrates—Handbook of Sensory Physiology, H. Autrum, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Vol. VII/6C, Chap. 4, pp. 287–317. [CrossRef]
  7. M. F. Land, “Variations in structure and design of compound eyes,” in Facets of Vision, D. G. Stavenga, R. C. Hardie, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), Chap. 5, pp. 90–111. [CrossRef]
  8. G. A. Horridge, “Apposition eyes of large diurnal insects as organs adapted to seeing,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 207, 287–309 (1980). [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. Sanders, C. E. Halford, “Design and analysis of apposition compound eye optical sensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 222–235 (1995). [CrossRef]
  10. K. Hamanaka, H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and its application to scale-invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3, 264–268 (1996). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Ogata, J. Ishida, T. Sasano, “Optical sensor array in an artificial compound eye,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3649–3655 (1994). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO) concept and experimental verification,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1806–1813 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. H. Kamal, R. Völkel, J. Alda, “Properties of moiré magnifiers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 3007–3014 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. P.-F. Rüedi, P. Heim, F. Kaess, E. Grenet, F. Heitger, P.-Y. Burgi, S. Gyger, P. Nussbaum, “A 128 × 128 pixel 120 dB dynamic range vision sensor chip for image contrast and orientation extraction,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), paper 12.8.
  15. R. McCluney, Introduction to Radiometry and Photometry (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1994).
  16. R. Kingslake, Optical System Design (Academic, London, 1983).
  17. P. Dannberg, G. Mann, L. Wagner, A. Bräuer, “Polymer UV-molding for micro-optical systems and O/E-integration,” in Micromachining for Micro-Optics, S. H. Lee, E. G. Johnson, eds., Proc. SPIE4179, page 137 ff. SPIE, 2000.
  18. H. Naumann, G. Schröder, Bauelemente der Optik—Taschenbuch der technischen Optik, 6th ed. (Hanser-Verlag, Munich, 1992).
  19. M. Shaw, D. Nawrocki, R. Hurditch, D. Johnson, “Improving the process capability of SU-8,” Microsystems Technologies 10, 1–6 (2003). [CrossRef]
  20. R. Rumpf, E. Johnson, “Micro-photonic systems utilizing SU-8,” in MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems IV, A. El-Fatatry, ed., Proc. SPIE5346, 64–72 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited