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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 43, Iss. 25 — Sep. 1, 2004
  • pp: 4845–4853

Design and imaging performance of achromatic diffractive–refractive x-ray and gamma-ray Fresnel lenses

Gerald K. Skinner  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 25, pp. 4845-4853 (2004)

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Achromatic combinations of a diffractive phase Fresnel lens and a refractive correcting element have been proposed for x-ray and gamma-ray astronomy and for microlithography, but considerations of absorption often dictate that the refractive component be given a stepped profile, resulting in a double Fresnel lens. The imaging performance of corrected Fresnel lenses, with and without stepping, is investigated, and the trade-off between resolution and useful bandwidth in different circumstances is discussed. Provided that the focal ratio is large, correction lenses made from low atomic number materials can be used with x rays in the range of approximately 10–100 keV without stepping. The use of stepping extends the possibility of correction to higher-aperture systems, to energies as low as a few kilo electron volts, and to gamma rays of mega electron volt energy.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(110.7440) Imaging systems : X-ray imaging
(180.7460) Microscopy : X-ray microscopy
(340.0340) X-ray optics : X-ray optics
(340.7460) X-ray optics : X-ray microscopy
(350.1260) Other areas of optics : Astronomical optics

Original Manuscript: April 2, 2004
Revised Manuscript: May 26, 2004
Manuscript Accepted: May 29, 2004
Published: September 1, 2004

Gerald K. Skinner, "Design and imaging performance of achromatic diffractive–refractive x-ray and gamma-ray Fresnel lenses," Appl. Opt. 43, 4845-4853 (2004)

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