OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 43, Iss. 26 — Sep. 10, 2004
  • pp: 5079–5091

Electro-optic modulator capable of generating simultaneous amplitude and phase modulations

Benedict J. Cusack, Benjamin S. Sheard, Daniel A. Shaddock, Malcolm B. Gray, Ping Koy Lam, and Stan E. Whitcomb  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 26, pp. 5079-5091 (2004)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (223 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report on the analysis and prototype characterization of a dual-electrode electro-optic modulator that can generate both amplitude and phase modulations with a selectable relative phase, termed a quadrature variable modulator (QVM). All modulation states can be reached by tuning only the electrical inputs, facilitating real-time tuning, and the device has shown good suppression and stability properties. A mathematical analysis is presented, including the development of a geometric-phase representation for modulation. The experimental characterization of the device shows that relative suppressions of 38, 39, and 30 dB for phase, single sideband, and carrier-suppressed modulations, respectively, can be obtained as well as that the device is well behaved when scanning continuously through the parameter space of modulations. The QVM is compared with existing optical configurations that can produce amplitude and phase-modulation combinations in the context of applications such as the tuning of lock points in optical-locking schemes, single-sideband applications, modulation fast-switching applications, and applications requiring combined modulations.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(230.0250) Optical devices : Optoelectronics
(230.2090) Optical devices : Electro-optical devices
(230.4110) Optical devices : Modulators
(230.5440) Optical devices : Polarization-selective devices

Original Manuscript: August 7, 2003
Revised Manuscript: May 3, 2004
Published: September 10, 2004

Benedict J. Cusack, Benjamin S. Sheard, Daniel A. Shaddock, Malcolm B. Gray, Ping Koy Lam, and Stan E. Whitcomb, "Electro-optic modulator capable of generating simultaneous amplitude and phase modulations," Appl. Opt. 43, 5079-5091 (2004)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. B. Davies, J. Conradi, “Hybrid modulator structures for subcarrier and harmonic subcarrier optical single sideband,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 600–602 (1998). [CrossRef]
  2. See, for example, JDS Uniphase, www.jdsu.com .
  3. G. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fiber-radio systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 74–75 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. G. G. Stokes, Mathematical and Physical Papers, 5 vols. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1880–1985).
  5. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983). [CrossRef]
  6. L. Schnupp, conference presentation at the European Collaboration Meeting on Interferometric Detection of Gravitational Waves, Sorrento, Italy, 1988.
  7. LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Advanced LIGO systems design,” LIGO Tech. Note T010075, P. Fritschel, ed. (LIGO Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 2001), http://antares.ligo.caltech.edu/dcc/default.htf .
  8. J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993). [CrossRef]
  9. K. A. Strain, J. Hough, “Experimental demonstration of the use of a Fabry-Perot cavity as a mirror of variable reflectivity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 799–802 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. G. de Vine, D. A. Shaddock, D. E. McClelland, “Experimental demonstration of variable reflectivity signal recycling for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1507–1509 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Benito, “Simple optical single-sideband modulator for fibre-radio applications,” Electron. Lett. 39, 97–99 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. K. Yonenaga, N. Takachio, “A fiber chromatic dispersion compensation technique with an optical SSB transmission in optical homodyne detection systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 949–951 (1993). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Loayssa, D. Benito, M. J. Garde, “Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation using a single-electrode electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 869–971 (2001). [CrossRef]
  14. S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Single sideband modulation performance of a LiNbO3 integrated modulator consisting of four-phase modulator waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364–366 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, Ph. Grangier, “Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states,” Nature (London) 421, 238–241 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, B. C. Buchler, R. Schnabel, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor, T. Symul, P. K. Lam, “Experimental investigation of continuous-variable quantum teleportation,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 32302-1-4 (2003). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik, “Unconditional quantum teleportation,” Science 282, 706–709 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited