OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 43, Iss. 32 — Nov. 10, 2004
  • pp: 5981–5986

Use of a Spectralon panel to measure the downwelling irradiance signal: case studies and recommendations

David Doxaran, Nagur C. Cherukuru, Samantha J. Lavender, and Gerald F. Moore  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 32, pp. 5981-5986 (2004)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (116 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Field determinations of the remote sensing reflectance signal are necessary to validate ocean color satellite sensors. The measurement of the above-water downwelling irradiance signal E d (0+) is commonly made with a reference plaque of a known reflectance. The radiance reflected by the plaque (Ldspec) can be used to determine E d (0+) if the plaque is assumed to be near Lambertian. To test this assumption, basic experiments were conducted on a boat under changing sky conditions (clear, cloudy, covered) and with different configurations for simultaneous measurements of Ldspec and E d (0+). For all measurement configurations, results were satisfactory under a clear sky. Under cloudy or covered skies, shadow effects on the plaque induced errors up to 100% in the determination of E d (0+). An appropriate measurement configuration was defined, which enabled E d (0+) to be determined with an accuracy of better than ±15% regardless of the sky conditions.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.2170) General : Equipment and techniques
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(120.4800) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical standards and testing

Original Manuscript: February 6, 2004
Revised Manuscript: August 2, 2004
Published: November 10, 2004

David Doxaran, Nagur C. Cherukuru, Samantha J. Lavender, and Gerald F. Moore, "Use of a Spectralon panel to measure the downwelling irradiance signal: case studies and recommendations," Appl. Opt. 43, 5981-5986 (2004)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).
  2. J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, G. H. S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelpiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, K. Voss, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 4, SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Ser., NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621, Vol. 3 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003).
  3. A. Morel, “In water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980). [CrossRef]
  4. C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7442–7455 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P. Lecomte, P. Y. Deschamps, “Reduction of skylight reflection effects in the above-water measurements of diffuse marine reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3844–3856 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel, D. W. Menzies, M. J. Neumann, R. C. Smith, “Remote-sensing reflectance determinations in the coastal ocean environment: impact of instrumental characteristics and environmental variability,” Appl. Opt. 39, 456–468 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, M. Sydor, “Absorption, scattering, and remote sensing reflectance relationships in coastal waters: testing a new inversion algorithm,” J. Coastal Res. 17, 328–341 (2001).
  8. S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. S. B. Hooker, A. Morel, “Platform and environmental effects on above-water determination of water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20, 187–205 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. D. A. Haner, B. T. McCuckin, R. T. Menzies, C. J. Bruegge, V. Duval, “Directional hemispherical reflectance for Spectralon by integration of its bidirectional reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3996–3999 (1998). [CrossRef]
  11. D. A. Haner, B. T. McCuckin, C. J. Bruegge, “Polarization characteristics of Spectralon illuminated by coherent light,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6350–6356 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, S. J. Lavender, P. Castaing, “Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149–161 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “A reflectance band ratio used to estimate suspended matter concentrations in sediment-dominated coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 5079–5085 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, P. Castaing, “Remote-sensing reflectance of turbid sediment-dominated waters. Reduction of sediment type variations and changing illumination conditions effects by use of reflectance ratios,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2623–2634 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. J. D’Sa, R. L. Miller, “Bio-optical properties in waters influenced by the Mississippi River during low flow conditions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 84, 538–549 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. J. M. Froidefond, L. Gardel, D. Guiral, M. Parra, J. F. Ternon, “Spectral remote sensing reflectances of coastal waters in French Guiana under the Amazon influence,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80, 225–232 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Remote sensing estimates of inherent optical properties in a coastal environment,” Remote Sens. Environ. 61, 290–301 (1997). [CrossRef]
  18. L. Han, D. C. Runquist, “The impact of a wind-roughened water surface on remote measurements of turbidity,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 195–201 (1998). [CrossRef]
  19. V. Lafon, J. M. Froidefond, F. Lahet, P. Castaing, “SPOT shallow water bathymetry of a moderately turbid tidal inlet based on field measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 136–148 (2002). [CrossRef]
  20. Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and waters properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999). [CrossRef]
  22. M. Sydor, R. A. Arnone, “Effect of suspended particulate and dissolved organic matter on remote sensing of coastal and riverine waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6905–6912 (1997). [CrossRef]
  23. J. A. Curcio, L. F. Drummeter, G. L. Knestrick, “An atlas of the absorption spectrum of the lower atmosphere from 5400 Å to 8520 Å,” Appl. Opt. 3, 1401–1409 (1964). [CrossRef]
  24. R. Heuermann, Managing Direction, Trios GmbH, Werftweg 15, D-26135 Oldenburg, Germany (personal communication, 2003).
  25. A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependance on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4861 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275–295 (2001). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited