OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 43, Iss. 33 — Nov. 20, 2004
  • pp: 6191–6197

High numerical aperture in multimode microstructured optical fibers

Nader A. Issa  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 33, pp. 6191-6197 (2004)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (859 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Microstructured or “air-clad” fibers, with air holes surrounding a large core, have recently demonstrated much wider light-acceptance angles than conventional fibers. An original and accurate method is presented for determining the numerical aperture of such fibers using leaky modes. The dependence on length, wavelength, and various microstructure dimensions are evaluated for the first time for a class of fibers that exhibit exceptionally high numerical apertures. These results show excellent agreement with published measurements on similar fibers and verify that bridge thicknesses much smaller than the wavelength are required for high numerical apertures.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(230.3990) Optical devices : Micro-optical devices

Original Manuscript: April 3, 2004
Revised Manuscript: August 7, 2004
Published: November 20, 2004

Nader A. Issa, "High numerical aperture in multimode microstructured optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 43, 6191-6197 (2004)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. P. Achenbach, J. H. Cobb, “Computational studies of light acceptance and propagation in straight and curved multimode active fibers,” J. Opt. A 5, 239–249 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. E. Mediavilla, S. Arribas, F. Watson, Fiber Optics in Astronomy (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1998), Vol. 3.
  3. J. K. Sahu, C. C. Renaud, K. Furusawa, R. Selvas, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, “Jacketed air-clad cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber laser with wide tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1116–1117 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. N. A. Mortensen, M. Stach, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, H. R. Simonsen, R. Michalzik, “Multi-mode photonic crystal fibers for VCSEL based data transmission,” Opt. Express 11, 1953–1959 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Feuermann, J. M. Gordon, M. Huleihil, “Light leakage in optical fibers: experimental results, modeling and the consequences for solar collectors,” Solar Energy 72, 195–204 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “High power air-clad photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 11, 48–53 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Bouwmans, R. M. Percival, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “High-power Er:Yb fiber laser with very high numerical aperture pump-cladding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 817–818 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, P. St. J. Russell, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843–845 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. K. Furusawa, A. Malinowski, J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, “Cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber laser with holey inner and outer cladding,” Opt. Express 9, 714–720 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, A. Liem, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, T. Peschel, V. Guyenot, A. Tünnermann, “Thermo-optical properties of air-clad photonic crystal fiber lasers in high power operation,” Opt. Express. 11, 2982–2990 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. A. J. Marcatili, “Air clad optical fiber waveguide,” U.S. patent3,712,705 (23January1973).
  12. R. J. Potter, “Transmission properties of optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1079–1089 (1961). [CrossRef]
  13. N. A. Mortensen, J. R. Folkenberg, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. Broeng, “Numerical aperture of single-mode photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1094–1096 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman Hall, London, 1983), Chap. 24.
  15. R. Sammut, A. W. Snyder, “Leaky modes on a dielectric waveguide: orthogonality and excitation,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1040–1044 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman Hall, London, 1983), Chaps. 4 and 20.
  17. J. A. Buck, “Fundamentals of optical fibers,” (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 49–51.
  18. R. L. Gallawa, “On the definition of fiber numerical aperture,” Electro-Opt. Syst. Des. 14, 46–54 (1982).
  19. N. A. Issa, L. Poladian, “Vector wave expansion method for leaky modes of microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1005–1012 (2003). [CrossRef]
  20. K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer, Berlin, 2001), pp. 21–23.
  21. E. Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1998), pp. 419–420.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited