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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 43, Iss. 34 — Dec. 1, 2004
  • pp: 6278–6284

Modulation light efficiency of diffractive lenses displayed in a restricted phase-mostly modulation display

Ignacio Moreno, Claudio Iemmi, Andrés Márquez, Juan Campos, and María J. Yzuel  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 34, pp. 6278-6284 (2004)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.43.006278


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Abstract

We present an analysis of the diffraction efficiency of diffractive lenses displayed on spatial light modulators that depends on the modulation response of the display. An ideal display would produce continuous phase-only modulation, reaching a maximum phase-modulation depth of 2π. We introduce the concept of modulation diffraction efficiency that accounts for the effect of nonlinearities only in the phase modulation of the display. We review a diffractive model with which to evaluate this modulation efficiency, including modulation defects such as nonlinear phase modulation, coupled amplitude modulation, phase quantization, and a limited modulation depth. We apply this diffractive model to Fresnel lenses and show that these modulation defects produce a lens multiplex effect. Finally we demonstrate that the application of a minimum Euclidean projection principle leads to high modulation diffraction efficiency even if the phase-modulation depth is much less than 2π. We demonstrate that the modulation efficiency can exceed 90% for a modulation depth of 1.4π and can exceed 40% (the equivalent for a binary phase element) for a modulation depth of only 0.7π. Experimental results from use of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal display are presented to confirm these conclusions.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(200.4560) Optics in computing : Optical data processing
(220.3620) Optical design and fabrication : Lens system design
(230.3720) Optical devices : Liquid-crystal devices
(230.6120) Optical devices : Spatial light modulators

History
Original Manuscript: March 24, 2004
Revised Manuscript: July 24, 2004
Published: December 1, 2004

Citation
Ignacio Moreno, Claudio Iemmi, Andrés Márquez, Juan Campos, and María J. Yzuel, "Modulation light efficiency of diffractive lenses displayed in a restricted phase-mostly modulation display," Appl. Opt. 43, 6278-6284 (2004)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-43-34-6278


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