OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 43, Iss. 34 — Dec. 1, 2004
  • pp: 6339–6343

Nonlinear Transmission and Excited-State Absorption in Fluorene Derivatives

Kevin D. Belfield, Mykhailo V. Bondar, Florencio E. Hernandez, Alma R. Morales, Olga V. Przhonska, and Katherine J. Schafer  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 34, pp. 6339-6343 (2004)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.43.006339


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (114 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The nonlinear transmission and the excited-state absorption spectra of three fluorene derivatives exhibiting large two-photon absorptivity were measured by the third harmonic of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser. We analyzed their capability for exhibiting stimulated emission in polar solvents and found that asymmetrical fluorene compounds with a diphenylamino substituent exhibited large Stokes shifts (~8000 cm<sup>−1</sup>), high quantum yields (~0.9 – 1.0), and no optical gain over their entire fluorescence spectral region. In contrast, a symmetrical fluorene derivative with vinylphenylbenzothiazole substituents in positions 2 and 7 underwent lasing under one-photon excitation by use of picosecond pulsed irradiation.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3380) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials
(140.4480) Lasers and laser optics : Optical amplifiers
(160.3380) Materials : Laser materials
(160.4890) Materials : Organic materials
(190.4710) Nonlinear optics : Optical nonlinearities in organic materials

Citation
Kevin D. Belfield, Mykhailo V. Bondar, Florencio E. Hernandez, Alma R. Morales, Olga V. Przhonska, and Katherine J. Schafer, "Nonlinear Transmission and Excited-State Absorption in Fluorene Derivatives," Appl. Opt. 43, 6339-6343 (2004)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-43-34-6339


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L. S. Tan, “Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various π-electron acceptors,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1896–1904 (2001).
  2. J. W. Baur, M. D. Alexander, J. M. Banach, L. R. Denny, B. A. Reinhardt, R. A. Vaia, P. A. Fleitz, and S. M. Kirkpatrick, “Molecular environment effects on two-photon-absorbing heterocyclic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 11, 2899–2906 (1999).
  3. K. D. Belfield, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, K. J. Schafer, and R. A. Negres, “New two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives: synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization,” Org. Lett. 1, 1575–1578 (1999).
  4. K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, W. Mourad, and B. A. Reinhardt, “Synthesis of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives via Cu-mediated Ullmann condensations,” J. Org. Chem. 65, 4475–4481 (2000).
  5. L. Y. Chiang, P. A. Padmawar, T. Canteenwala, L. S. Tan, G. S. He, R. Kannan, R. A. Vaia, T. C. Lin, Q. Zheng, and P. N. Prasad, “Synthesis of C60-diphenylaminofluorene dyad with large 2PA cross-sections and efficient intramolecular two-photon energy transfer,” Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 17, 1854–1855 (2002).
  6. K. D. Belfield, K. J. Schafer, Y. Liu, J. Liu, X. Ren, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Multiphoton-absorbing organic materials for microfabrication, emerging optical applications and nondestructive three-dimensional imaging,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 837–849 (2000).
  7. Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, and C. Andraud, “Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391–5396 (2001).
  8. J. D. Bhawalkar, N. D. Kumar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon photodynamic therapy,” J. Clin. Laser Med. Surg. 15, 201–204 (1997).
  9. X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, and Q. Gong, “Large femtosecond third-order nonlinear optical response in a novel donor-acceptor copolymer consisting of ethynylfluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units,” Chem. Mater. 13, 1540–1544 (2001).
  10. X. Zhan, Y. Liu, D. Zhu, W. Huang, and Q. Gong, “Femtosecond third-order optical nonlinearity of conjugated polymers consisting of fluorene and tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl units: structure-property relationships,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1884–1888 (2002).
  11. O. K. Bazyl, “Experimental and theoretical study of electron-excited states, spectral-luminescent properties, and generating ability of fluorene and of its phenylethynyl substituents,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 45, 921–924 (1986).
  12. O. R. Wood II, L. H. Szeto, and W. T. Silfvast, “UV dye lasers optically pumped by a CO2-laser-produced plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1956–1962 (1977).
  13. J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Kluwer Academic-Plenum, New York, 1999).
  14. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760–769 (1990).
  15. E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, in Ultrashort Light Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed., Vol. 18 of Topics in Applied Physics(Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 83–122.
  16. K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, and W. Mourad, “Spectral properties of several fluorene derivatives with potential as two-photon fluorescent dyes,” J. Lumin. 97, 141–146 (2002).
  17. K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, and J. Percino, “Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of new two-photon absorbing fluorene derivatives,” Chem. Mater. 16, (to be published).
  18. K. D. Belfield, A. R. Morales, B.-S. Kang, J. M. Hales, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, V. M. Chapela, and J. Percino, “Linear and two-photon photophysical properties of a series of symmetrical diphenylaminofluorenes,” Chem. Mater. 16, 2267–2273 (2004).
  19. K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, J. M. Hales, A. R. Morales, O. V. Przhonska, K. J. Schafer, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “One- and two-photon fluorescence anisotropy of fluorene derivatives,” J. Fluoresc. (to be published).
  20. F. P. Schafer, ed., Dye Lasers, Vol. 1 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1973).
  21. O. V. Przhonska, M. V. Bondar, and Yu. L. Slominskii, “Effect of optical limiting in polymethine dyes,” Sci. Appl. Photog. 43, 71–83 (2001).
  22. S. Reindl and A. Penzkofer, “Higher excited-state photoisomerization and singlet to triplet intersystem-crossing in DODCI,” Chem. Phys. 230, 83–96 (1998).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited