OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 43, Iss. 4 — Feb. 1, 2004
  • pp: 788–792

Verification of point-spread-function-based modeling of an extreme-ultraviolet photoresist

Patrick P. Naulleau  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 4, pp. 788-792 (2004)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (237 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A crucial component of lithographic modeling is the resist. Resists typically used at extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths are derivatives of deep-ultraviolet chemically amplified resists. Models that describe these resists are often very complicated and are dependent on a large number of free parameters. Point-spread-function-based resist modeling serves as a simple alternative. I show this type of modeling to be a viable technique at EUV wavelengths by directly comparing modeling results with a variety of printing metrics, including process windows and isodense bias.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.4100) Imaging systems : Modulation transfer function
(110.5220) Imaging systems : Photolithography
(220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography
(310.3840) Thin films : Materials and process characterization

Original Manuscript: July 16, 2003
Revised Manuscript: October 7, 2003
Published: February 1, 2004

Patrick P. Naulleau, "Verification of point-spread-function-based modeling of an extreme-ultraviolet photoresist," Appl. Opt. 43, 788-792 (2004)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 52–63 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 664–671 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Robertson, P. Naulleau, D. O’Connell, K. McDonald, T. Delano, K. Goldberg, S. Hansen, K. Brown, R. Brainard, “Calibration of EUV-2D photoresist simulation parameters for accurate predictive modelling,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 900–909 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Ahn, H. Kim, K. Baik, “A novel approximate model for resist process,” in Optical Microlithography XI, L. Van den Hove, ed., Proc. SPIE3334, 752–763 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Hong, H. Kim, H. Yune, C. Ahn, Y. Koo, K. Baik, “Accuracy of diffused aerial image model for full-chip-level optical proximity correction,” in Optical Microlithography XIII, C. J. Progler, ed., Proc. SPIE4000, 1024–1032 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. F. Houle, W. Hinsberg, M. Sanchez, J. Hoffnagle, “Influence of resist components on image blur in a patterned positive-tone chemically amplified photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 924–931 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. J. A. Hoffnagle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. I. Sanchez, F. A. Houle, “Method of measuring the spatial resolution of a photoresist,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1776–1778 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. H. Chapman, A. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. Tichenor, W. Replogle, R. Stulen, G. Kubiak, P. Rockett, L. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, A. Leung, K. Jefferson, J. Wronosky, J. Taylor, L. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. Spiller, G. Sommargren, J. Folta, D. Sweeney, E. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, U. Michan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P. Yan, C. Gwyn, S. Lee, “First lithographic results from the EUV engineering test stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2389–2395 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the advanced light source static microfield exposure station using the ETS set-2 optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Lee, D. Tichenor, P. Naulleau, D. O’Connell, “Lithographic aerial image contrast measurement in the EUV engineering test stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2849–2852 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, H. Chapman, “Testing EUV optics with visible-light and EUV interferometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2834–2839 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. PROLITH is a registered trademark of KLA-Tencor Corporation, 160 Rio Robles, San Jose, California 95134.
  15. C. Mack, “Enhanced lumped parameter model for photolithography,” in Optical/Laser Microlithograph VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 501–510 (1994). [CrossRef]
  16. T. Brunner, R. Ferguson, “Approximate models for resist processing effects,” in Optical Microlithography IX, G. E. Fuller, ed., Proc. SPIE2726, 198–207 (1996). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited