Two configurations of volume holographic grating couplers are rigorously analyzed by means of the finite-difference frequency-domain method (FDFD) for both TE and TM polarizations and for 0- and 45-deg output coupling. The two configurations depend on the position of the grating coupler, which can be placed either in the film or in the cover waveguide region. The FDFD results are compared with those obtained by the rigorous coupled-wave analysis in conjunction with the leaky-mode approach (RCWA-LM). Because the FDFD method is a rigorous solution of the Maxwell equations, it simulates the VHGC configuration and takes into account the waveguide-coupler discontinuity effects as well as the multimode excitation and interference effects, all of which are neglected by the traditional RCWA-LM.
© 2004 Optical Society of America
(050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory
(050.7330) Diffraction and gratings : Volume gratings
(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
Shun-Der Wu and Elias N. Glytsis, "Volume holographic grating couplers: rigorous analysis by use of the finite-Difference frequency-domain method," Appl. Opt. 43, 1009-1023 (2004)