OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 43, Iss. 5 — Feb. 10, 2004
  • pp: 1024–1037

SU5: a calibrated variable-polarization synchrotron radiation beam line in the vacuum-ultraviolet range

Laurent Nahon and Christian Alcaraz  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 5, pp. 1024-1037 (2004)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1262 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



SU5 is a high-resolution variable-polarization synchrotron radiation (SR) beam line with which linear and circular dichroism experiments are performed in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) range (5–40 eV), based on an electromagnetic crossed undulator called the Onduleur Plan/Helicoïdal du Lure à Induction Electromagnétique (OPHELIE). To get precise knowledge of the polarization state of the emitted SR and to take into account the polarization transformations induced by reflection on the various optics, we set up an in situ VUV polarimeter to provide a precise and complete polarization analysis of the SR at the sample location. The overall measured polarization performances were highly satisfactory, with measured linear polarization rates of more than 98% (83%) in the vertical (horizontal) linear polarization mode and an average 92.1% (95.2%) circular polarization rate for the right- (left)-handed circular polarization mode, which, to our knowledge, are the highest reported values in the VUV range. Despite some uneven photon energy efficiency, the OPHELIE crossed undulator behaves as expected in terms of polarization, permitting full control of the emitted polarization by manipulation of the vertical-to-horizontal magnetic field ratio (ρund) and the relative longitudinal phase (ϕund).

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.2130) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Ellipsometry and polarimetry
(120.5700) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Reflection
(230.6080) Optical devices : Sources
(300.6540) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, ultraviolet
(340.6720) X-ray optics : Synchrotron radiation

Original Manuscript: July 29, 2003
Revised Manuscript: October 22, 2003
Published: February 10, 2004

Laurent Nahon and Christian Alcaraz, "SU5: a calibrated variable-polarization synchrotron radiation beam line in the vacuum-ultraviolet range," Appl. Opt. 43, 1024-1037 (2004)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. U. Heinzmann, N. A. Cherepkov, “Spin polarization in photoionization,” in VUV and Soft X-Ray Photoionization, U. Becker, D. Shirley, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1996), pp. 521–559. [CrossRef]
  2. G. Schönhense, J. Hormes, “Photoionization of oriented systems and circular dichroism,” in VUV and Soft X-Ray Photoionization, U. Becker, D. Shirley, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1996), pp. 607–652. [CrossRef]
  3. F. Schäfers, W. Peatman, A. Eyers, Ch. Heckenkamp, G. Schönhense, U. Heinzmann, “High-flux normal incidence monochromator for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1032–1041 (1986). [CrossRef]
  4. W. B. Westerveld, K. Becker, P. W. Zetner, J. J. Corr, J. W. McConkey, “Production and measurement of circular polarization in the VUV,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2256–2262 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Höchst, R. Patel, F. Middleton, “Multiple-reflection λ/4 phase shifter: a viable alternative to generate circular-polarized synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 347, 107–114 (1994). [CrossRef]
  6. P. A. Snyder, “Status of natural and magnetic circular dichroism instrumentation using synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 222, 364–371 (1984). [CrossRef]
  7. P. Elleaume, “Generation of various polarization states from insertion devices: a review,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1830–1833 (1989). [CrossRef]
  8. R. P. Walker, B. Diviacco, “Studies of insertion devices for producing circularly polarized radiation with variable helicity in ELLETRA,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 332–335 (1992). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Bahrdt, W. Fentrup, A. Gaupp, M. Scheer, W. Gudat, G. Ingold, S. Sasaki, “Ellipically polarizing insertion devices at BESSY II,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 467-468, 21–29 (2001), and references therein.
  10. L. Museur, C. Olivero, D. Riedel, M. C. Castex, “Polarization properties of coherent VUV light at 125 nm generated by sum-frequency four-wave mixing in mercury,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 1–5 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1725–1745 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Motoki, J. Adachi, K. Ito, K. Ishii, K. Soejima, A. Yagishita, S. K. Semenov, N. A. Cherepkov, “Direct probe of the shape resonance mechanism in 2σg-shell photoionization of the N2 molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 063003 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Desiderio, S. DiFonzo, B. Diviacco, W. Jark, J. Krempasky, R. Krempaska, F. Lama, M. Luce, H. C. Mertins, M. Piacentini, T. Prosperi, S. Rinaldi, G. Soullie, F. Schäfers, S. Turcini, R. P. Walker, N. Zema, “The ELETTRA circular polarization beamline and electromagnetic elliptical wiggler insertion device,” Synchr. Rad. News 12, 34–38 (1999). [CrossRef]
  14. G. Rybalchenko, K. Shirasawa, M. Morita, N. Smolyakov, K. Goto, T. Matsui, H. Hiraya, “Performance and future plan of multimode undulator at HiSOR,” Nucl. Instrum. and Methods A 467-468, 173–176 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Yuri, K. Yagi, T. Yamada, H. Onuki, “Polarization characteristics of polarizing undulator radiation installed in the electron storage ring NIJI-II,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 501–504 (1996). [CrossRef]
  16. T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, K. Yamaguchi, H. Fukutani, “Elliptical-polarization analyses of synchrotron radiation in the 5–80 eV region with a reflection polarimeter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 308, 635–644 (1991). [CrossRef]
  17. T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, “Polarization analyses of elliptically polarized vacuum-ultraviolet undulator radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 336, 368–372 (1993). [CrossRef]
  18. F. Schäfers, H.-C. Mertins, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Souillie, W. Jark, R. Walker, X. Le Cann, R. Nyholm, M. Eriksson, “Soft-x-ray polarimeter with multilayer optics: complete analysis of the polarization state of light,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4074–4088 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. L. Nahon, M. Corlier, P. Peaupardin, F. Marteau, O. Marcouillé, P. Brunelle, C. Alcaraz, P. Thiry, “A versatile electromagnetic planar/helical crossed undulator optimized for the SU5 low energy/high resolution beamline at Super-ACO,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 396, 237–250 (1997). [CrossRef]
  20. L. Nahon, B. Lagarde, F. Polack, C. Alcaraz, O. Dutuit, M. Vervloet, K. Ito, “A new VUV high-resolution undulator-based beamline at Super-ACO,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 404, 418–429 (1998). [CrossRef]
  21. L. Nahon, C. Alcaraz, J.-L. Marlats, B. Lagarde, F. Polack, R. Thissen, D. Lepère, K. Ito, “Very-high spectral resolution obtained with SU5: a VUV undulator-based beamline at Super-ACO,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1320–1329 (2001). [CrossRef]
  22. M. Meyer, S. Aloïse, P. O’Keefe, A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, “Polarization effects in the photoionization of VUV excited atoms,” in Correlation, Polarization and Ionization of Atomic Systems, G. F. Hanne, ed., AIP Conf. Proc.697, 42–47 (2003).
  23. M. Lebech, J. C. Houver, A. Lafosse, D. Dowek, C. Alcaraz, L. Nahon, R. Lucchese, “Complete description of linear molecule photoionization achieved by vector correlations using light of a single circular polarization,” J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9653–9663 (2003). [CrossRef]
  24. G. Garcia, L. Nahon, M. Lebech, J.-C. Houver, D. Dowek, I. Powis, “Circular dichroism in the photoelectron angular distribution from randomly oriented enantiomers of camphor,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 8781–8784 (2003). [CrossRef]
  25. U. Meierhenrich, B. Barbier, R. Jacquet, A. Chabin, C. Alcaraz, L. Nahon, A. Brack, “Photochemical origin of biomolecular asymmetry,” Astrobiology 2, 167–170 (2001).
  26. C. Alcaraz, R. Thissen, M. Compin, A. Jolly, M. Drecher, L. Nahon, “First polarization measurements of OPHELIE: a versatile polarization VUV undulator at Super-ACO,” in X-Ray Optics: Design, Performance, and Applications, A. Khounsary, A. Freund, T. Ishikawa, G. Srajer, J. Lang, eds., Proc. SPIE3773, 250–261 (1999). [CrossRef]
  27. H. Onuki, “Elliptically polarized synchrotron radiation source with crossed and retarded magnetic fields,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 94–98 (1986). [CrossRef]
  28. H. Onuki, N. Saito, T. Saito, “Undulator generating any kind of elliptically polarized radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 173–175 (1988). [CrossRef]
  29. M. Corlier, P. Brunelle, C. Herbeaux, O. Marcouillé, J. L. Marlats, F. Marteau, P. Peaupardin, M. Sommer, J. Vétéran, L. Nahon, “A planar/helicoidal electromagnetic crossed overlapped undulator at LURE,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Magnet Technology, L. Liangzhen, S. Gualiao, S. Luguang, eds. (Science Press, Beijing, 1998), pp. 84–87.
  30. M. Corlier, J.-C. Besson, P. Brunelle, J. Claverie, J.-M. Godefroy, C. Herbeaux, D. Lefebvre, O. Marcouillé, J.-L. Marlats, F. Marteau, J. Michaut, P. Peaupardin, A. Petit, M. Sommer, J. Vétéran, L. Nahon, “Commissioning of OPHELIE: the new electromagnetic crossed overlapped undulator at Super-ACO,” in Proceedings of PAC ’99, A. Luccio, W. Mackay, eds. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. 2686–2688.
  31. L. Nahon, P. Peaupardin, F. Marteau, O. Marcouillé, P. Brunelle, R. Thissen, C. Alcaraz, M. Corlier, “Commissioning of OPHELIE in the DC mode: an electromagnetic planar/helical crossed VUV undulator at Super-ACO,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 447, 569–586 (2000). [CrossRef]
  32. R. T. Holm, “Convention confusions,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, 2nd ed., E. D. Palick, ed. (Academic, New York, 1991), pp. 21–55.
  33. P. Elleaume, “Helios: a new type of linear/helical undulator,” J. Synchr. Rad. 1, 19–26 (1994). [CrossRef]
  34. P. Brunelle, J.-C. Besson, L. Cassinari, J. Claverie, J. Darpentigny, M. Corlier, J.-M. Godefroy, O. Marcouillé, F. Marteau, A. Nadji, A. Petit, M. Sommer, L. Nahon, “Transparent user operation of OPHELIE at Super-ACO,” in Proceedings of EPAC 2000, J.-L. Laclare, W. Mitaroff, Ch. Petit-Jean-Genaz, J. Poole, M. Regler, eds. (Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, Vienna, 2000), pp. 1013–1015.
  35. For a general introduction to the various polarization formalisms see D. Kliger, J. Lewis, C. RandallPolarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990).
  36. E. D. Palick, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).
  37. B. Mercier, M. Compin, C. Prevost, G. Bellec, R. Thissen, O. Dutuit, L. Nahon, “Experimental and theoretical study of a differentially-pumped absorption gas cell used as a low energy-pass filter in the VUV photon energy range,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2533–2541 (2000). [CrossRef]
  38. K. J. Kim, “Characteristics of synchrotron radiation,” in Proceedings of the AIP Conference on the Physics of Particle Accelerators, AIP Conf. Proc. 184, 565–632 (1989).
  39. Alessandro Mirone, Optics Group, LURE, Orsay, France (personal communication, 1999).
  40. K. Rabinovitch, L. R. Canfield, R. P. Madden, “A method for measuring polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1005–1010 (1965). [CrossRef]
  41. C. Alcaraz, D. Nether, J.-L. Marlats, B. Pilette, L. Nahon, are preparing a paper to be called “Conception and performances of a very-accurate reflection polarimeter optimized for the VUV range.”
  42. T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, H. Fukutani, “Production and direct measurement of circularly polarized vacuum-ultraviolet light with multireflection optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2592–2594 (1991). [CrossRef]
  43. K. Yagi, H. Onuki, S. Sugiyama, T. Yamazaki, “Absolute spectral brightness and polarization characteristics of radiation from a polarizing undulator in the visible region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 396–399 (1992). [CrossRef]
  44. See, for instance, P. Elleaume, J. Chavanne, “A new powerful flexible linear/helical undulator for soft x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 304, 719–724 (1991).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited