OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 43, Iss. 9 — Mar. 19, 2004
  • pp: 1856–1862

Mid-infrared laser-induced superheating of water and its quantification by an optical temperature probe

Tobias Brendel and Ralf Brinkmann  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 43, Issue 9, pp. 1856-1862 (2004)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (139 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Free-running thulium laser pulses (Cr:Tm:YAG, λ = 2.01 μm, t p = 300 μs) were applied to a purified, degassed water sample and the resulting temperature rise was investigated by an optical temperature probe. The probe detected water reflectance index changes with temperature and also the onset of vaporization, which was found to occur in a superheat regime, at approximately 230 °C. The experimental data were compared with theoretical temperature calculations, and deviations of less than 20 °C were stated. The best agreement between theory and experiment was found for temperatures below 180 °C, defining by this the method’s high accuracy limit. In conclusion, both the optical temperature probe and the presented calculations can help to improve dosimetry in pulsed IR laser applications by precise temperature measurement and prediction.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.6850) General : Thermodynamics
(120.1880) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Detection
(170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics and biotechnology
(170.1020) Medical optics and biotechnology : Ablation of tissue
(300.1030) Spectroscopy : Absorption
(350.5340) Other areas of optics : Photothermal effects

Original Manuscript: July 12, 2003
Revised Manuscript: December 1, 2003
Published: March 20, 2004

Tobias Brendel and Ralf Brinkmann, "Mid-infrared laser-induced superheating of water and its quantification by an optical temperature probe," Appl. Opt. 43, 1856-1862 (2004)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. Brinkmann, D. Theisen, T. Brendel, R. Birngruber, “Single-pulse 30-J holmium laser for myocardial revascularization: a study on ablation dynamics in comparison to CO2 laser-TMR,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 969–980 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. B. I. Lange, T. Brendel, G. Hüttmann, “Temperature dependence of light absorption in water at holmium and thulium laser wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5797–5803 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Brinkmann, C. Hansen, “Beam-profile modulation of thulium laser radiation applied with multimode fibers and its effect on the threshold fluence to vaporize water,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3361–3370 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Frenz, F. Könz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. B. A. Hooper, Y. Domankevitz, R. R. Anderson, C. Lin, “Optical temperature probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2381–2383 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. T. Brendel, R. Brinkmann, “Highly resolved tracing of Q-switched mid-IR laser-induced vaporization,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction XII: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, D. D. Duncan, S. L. Jacques, P. C. Johnson, eds., Proc. SPIE4257, 303–311 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1205–1209 (1965). [CrossRef]
  8. “Release on the IAPWS Industrial Formulation 1997 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam,” available at http://www.iapws.org .
  9. V. P. Skripov, Thermophysical Properties of Liquids in the Metastable (Superheated) State (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1988).
  10. I. N. Bronstein, K. A. Semendjajew, Taschenbuch der Mathematik (Nauka, Moscow, 1991).
  11. M. Frenz, G. Paltauf, H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Laser-generated cavitation in absorbing liquid induced by acoustic diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3546–3549 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, J. S. Gallagher, “Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 19, 677–717 (1990). [CrossRef]
  13. P. G. Debenedetti, Metastable Liquids: Concepts and Principles (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J., 1996).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited