OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 44, Iss. 10 — Apr. 1, 2005
  • pp: 1934–1941

Fluorescence spectra provide information on the depth of fluorescent lesions in tissue

Johannes Swartling, Jenny Svensson, Daniel Bengtsson, Khaled Terike, and Stefan Andersson-Engels  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 10, pp. 1934-1941 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1048 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The fluorescence spectrum measured from a fluorophore in tissue is affected by the absorption and scattering properties of the tissue, as well as by the measurement geometry. We analyze this effect with Monte Carlo simulations and by measurements on phantoms. The spectral changes can be used to estimate the depth of a fluorescent lesion embedded in the tissue by measurement of the fluorescence signal in different wavelength bands. By taking the ratio between the signals at two wavelengths, we show that it is possible to determine the depth of the lesion. Simulations were performed and validated by measurements on a phantom in the wavelength range 815–930 nm. The depth of a fluorescing layer could be determined with 0.6-mm accuracy down to at least a depth of 10 mm. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed for different tissue types of various composition. The results indicate that depth estimation of a lesion should be possible with 2–3-mm accuracy, with no assumptions made about the optical properties, for a wide range of tissues.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.3660) Medical optics and biotechnology : Light propagation in tissues
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(170.6280) Medical optics and biotechnology : Spectroscopy, fluorescence and luminescence
(170.7050) Medical optics and biotechnology : Turbid media

Original Manuscript: July 20, 2004
Revised Manuscript: December 3, 2004
Manuscript Accepted: December 5, 2004
Published: April 1, 2005

Johannes Swartling, Jenny Svensson, Daniel Bengtsson, Khaled Terike, and Stefan Andersson-Engels, "Fluorescence spectra provide information on the depth of fluorescent lesions in tissue," Appl. Opt. 44, 1934-1941 (2005)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, “Would near-infrared fluorescence signals propagate through large human organs for clinical studies?” Opt. Lett. 27, 333–335 (2002). [CrossRef]
  2. V. Ntziachristos, C.-H. Tung, C. Bremer, R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med. 8, 757–760 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents,” Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87–94 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Eidsath, V. Chernomordik, A. H. Gandjbakhche, P. Smith, A. Russo, “Three-dimensional localization of fluorescent masses deeply embedded in tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4079–4092 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. J. Farrell, R. P. Hawkes, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, “Modeling of photosensitizer fluorescence emission and photobleaching for photodynamic therapy dosimetry,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7168–7183 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. T. Johansson, M. S. Thompson, M. Stenberg, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Feasibility study of a novel system for combined light dosimetry and interstitial photodynamic treatment of massive tumors,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1462–1468 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, X. D. Li, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging in turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 158–160 (1996). [CrossRef]
  8. D. Y. Paithankar, A. U. Chen, B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Imaging of fluorescent yield and lifetime from multiply scattered light reemitted from random media,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2260–2272 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Chang, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Imaging of fluorescence in highly scattering media,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 44, 810–822 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9619–9624 (2002).
  11. A. B. Milstein, S. Oh, K. J. Webb, C. A. Bouman, Q. Zhang, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, “Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3081–3094 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. A. D. Klose, A. H. Hielscher, “Fluorescence tomography with simulated data based on the equation of radiative transfer,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1019–1021 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Stasic, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, “The use of spatially-resolved fluorescence and reflectance to determine interface depth in layered fluorophore distributions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3459–3474 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Keijzer, R. R. Richards-Kortum, S. L. Jacques, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of turbid media: autofluorescence of the human aorta,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4286–4292 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Avrillier, E. Tinet, D. Ettori, J. M. Tualle, B. Gélébart, “Influence of the emission-reception geometry in laser-induced fluorescence spectra from turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2781–2787 (1998). [CrossRef]
  16. C. Eker, “Optical characterization of tissue for medical diagnostics,” Ph.D. dissertation (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1999).
  17. M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. Zhang, J. Wu, M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4633–4646 (2001). [CrossRef]
  18. Q. Liu, C. Zhu, N. Ramanujam, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 223–236 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, A. M. Ross, M. N. Ediger, “Selective detection of fluorophore layers in turbid media: the role of fiber-optic probe design,” Opt. Lett. 28, 120–122 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. U. Utzinger, R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 121–147 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Swartling, A. Pifferi, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, “Accelerated Monte Carlo model to simulate fluorescence spectra from layered tissues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 714–727 (2003). [CrossRef]
  22. A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143–1151 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. Swartling, J. S. Dam, S. Andersson-Engels, “Comparison of spatially and temporally resolved diffuse-reflectance measurement systems for determination of biomedical optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4612–4620 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid media by using the adding-doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 559–568 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterisation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., submitted for publication.
  26. C. Bremer, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, “Optical-based molecular imaging: contrast agents and potential medical applications,” Eur. J. Radiol. 13, 231–243 (2003).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited