OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 44, Iss. 11 — Apr. 10, 2005
  • pp: 2177–2188

Magnetic-resonance-imaging–coupled broadband near-infrared tomography system for small animal brain studies

Xu Heng, Roger Springett, Hamid Dehghani, Brian W. Pogue, Keith D. Paulsen, and Jeff F. Dunn  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 11, pp. 2177-2188 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1117 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A novel magnetic-resonance-coupled broadband near-infrared (NIR) tomography system for small animal brain studies is described. Several features of the image formation approach are new in NIR tomography and represent major advances in the path to recovering high-resolution hemoglobin and oxygen saturation images of tissue. The NIR data were broadband and continuous wave and were used along with a second-derivative-based estimation of the path length from water absorption. The path length estimation from water was then used along with the attenuation spectrum to recover absorption and reduced scattering coefficient images at multiple wavelengths and then to recover images of total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation. Going beyond these basics of NIR tomography, software has been developed to allow inclusion of structures derived from MR imaging (MRI) for the external and internal tissue boundaries, thereby improving the accuracy and spatial resolution of the properties in each tissue type. The system has been validated in both tissue-simulating phantoms, with 10% accuracy observed, and in a rat cranium imaging experiment. The latter experiment used variation in inspired oxygen (FiO2) to vary the observed hemoglobin and oxygen saturation images. Quantitative agreement was observed between the changes in deoxyhemoglobin values derived from NIR and the changes predicted with blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI. This system represents the initial stage in what will likely be a larger role for NIR tomography, coupled to MRI, and illustrates that the technological challenges of using continuous-wave broadband data and inclusion of a priori structural information can be met with careful phantom studies.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.3890) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Medical optics instrumentation
(300.6340) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, infrared

Original Manuscript: July 26, 2004
Revised Manuscript: December 20, 2004
Manuscript Accepted: December 23, 2004
Published: April 10, 2005

Xu Heng, Roger Springett, Hamid Dehghani, Brian W. Pogue, Keith D. Paulsen, and Jeff F. Dunn, "Magnetic-resonance-imaging–coupled broadband near-infrared tomography system for small animal brain studies," Appl. Opt. 44, 2177-2188 (2005)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. F. F. Jobsis, “Non-invasive, infra-red monitoring of cerebral and myochardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1267 (1977). [CrossRef]
  2. B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfield, G. Holtom, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. O. Hazeki, M. Tamura, “Quantitative analysis of hemoglobin oxygenation state of rat brain in situ by near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Appl. Physiol. 64, 796–802 (1988). [PubMed]
  4. M. Haida, B. Chance, “A method to estimate the ratio of absorption coefficients of two wavelengths using phase modulated near infrared light spectroscopy,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 345, 829–835 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. J. Matcher, C. E. Cooper, “Absolute quantification of deoxyhaemoglobin concentration in tissue near infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1295–1312 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in vivo using laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 63–74 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. J. Tromberg, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, T. Pham, E. R. Anderson, J. Butler, M. Cahn, J. D. Gross, V. Venugopalan, D. Pham, “Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 661–668 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12349–12354 (2003).
  9. S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Use of the water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 177–196 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue-scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 386–396 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. L. Hull, M. G. Nichols, T. H. Foster, “Quantitative broadband near-infrared spectroscopy of tissue-simulating phantoms containing erythrocytes,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3381–3404 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, “Image reconstruction in optical tomography,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 717–726 (1997). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, “Comparison of two- and three-dimensional reconstruction methods in optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7419–7428 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, K. D. Paulsen, “Three-dimensional optical tomography: resolution in small-object imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3117–3128 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdell, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3109–3116 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Xu, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, R. Springett, K. D. Paulsen, J. F. Dunn, “Feasibility of NIR tomographic reconstruction with multispectral continuous wave data by mapping into frequency domain data,” in Optical Tomography and Spectros-copy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE4955, 103–114 (2003). [CrossRef]
  18. H. Xu, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, “Absorption and scattering imaging of tissue with steady-state second-differential spectral-analysis tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2043–2045 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomographic reconstruction in a complex head model using a priori region boundary information,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2703–2721 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared (NIR) tomography breast image reconstruction with a priori structural information from MRI: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 199–209 (2003). [CrossRef]
  21. V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, B. Chance, “Time-correlated single photon counting imager for simultaneous magnetic resonance and near-infrared mammography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4221–4233 (1998). [CrossRef]
  22. Q. Zhu, N. Chen, S. H. Kurtzman, “Imaging tumor angiogenesis by use of combined near-infrared diffusive light and ultrasound,” Opt. Lett. 28, 337–339 (2003).
  23. A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. E. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, D. A. Boas, “Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5181–5190 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, “High resolution near infrared tomographic imaging simulations of rat cranium using a priori MRI structural information,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1716–1718 (1998). [CrossRef]
  25. H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, K. D. Paulsen, J. F. Dunn, “Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102–110 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Development and calibration of a parallel modulated near-infrared tomography system for hemoglobin imaging in vivo,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1817–1824 (2001). [CrossRef]
  27. B. L. Horecker, “The absorption spectra of hemoglobin and its derivatives in the visible and near infrared regions,” J. Biol. Chem. 148, 173–183 (1943).
  28. V. S. Hollis, “Non-invasive monitoring of brain tissue temperature by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Ph.D. thesis (University College London, 2002).
  29. R. F. Reinoso, B. A. Telfer, M. Rowland, “Tissue water content in rats measured by desiccation,” J. Pharmacol. Toxi-col. Methods 38, 87–92 (1997). [CrossRef]
  30. M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. H. B. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, “Simultaneous reconstruction of optical-absorption and scattering maps in turbid media from near-infrared frequency-domain data,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2128–2130 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. D. W. Marquardt, “An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters,” J. Soc. Indust. Appl. Math. 11, 431–441 (1963). [CrossRef]
  33. B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, J. Prewitt, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Spatially variant regularization improves diffuse optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2950–2961 (1999). [CrossRef]
  34. K. D. Paulsen, H. Jiang, “Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation,” Med. Phys. 22, 691–701 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. H. Dehghani, M. M. Doyley, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, J. Geng, K. D. Paulsen, “Breast deformation modelling for image reconstruction in near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1131–1145 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. D. M. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, H. Y. Ma, Q. Zhang, J. R. Ballesteros, S. Fantini, D. Wallace, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, “Non-invasive and quantitative near-infrared haemoglobin spectrometry in the piglet brain during hypoxic stress, using a frequency-domain multidistance instrument,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 41–62 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. C. Julien-Dolbec, I. Tropres, O. Montigon, H. Reutenauer, A. Ziegler, M. Decorps, J. F. Payen, “Regional response of cerebral blood volume to graded hypoxic hypoxia in rat brain,” Br. J. Anaesth. 89, 287–293 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. S. Punwani, C. E. Cooper, M. Clemence, J. Penrice, P. Amess, J. Thornton, R. J. Ordidge, “Correlation between absolute deoxyhaemoglobin [dHb] measured by near infrared spectros-copy (NIRS) and absolute R2′ as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 413, 129–137 (1997). [CrossRef]
  39. Y. Chen, D. R. Tailor, X. Intes, B. Chance, “Correlation between near-infrared spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging of rat brain oxygenation modulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 417–427 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. I. Kida, T. Yamamoto, M. Tamura, “Interpretation of BOLD MRI signals in rat brain using simultaneously measured near-infrared spectrophotometric information,” NMR Biomed. 9, 333–338 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. B. A. Brooksby, S. Jiang, G. Ehret, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, “Development of a system for simultaneous MRI and near-infrared diffuse tomography to diagnose breast cancer,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings (CD-ROM) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004).
  42. B. A. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, C. Kogel, M. Doyley, J. B. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, “Magnetic resonance-guided near-infrared tomography of the breast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 5262–5270 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited